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This study characterizes an animal model of persistent mechanical hyperalgesia induced by repeated intramuscular injections of low pH saline. Saline at pH 4, 5, 6, or 7.2 was injected twice, 2 to 10 days apart, into the gastrocnemius muscle of rats. To quantify hyperalgesia, paw withdrawal latency to radiant heat (heat hyperalgesia) and withdrawal threshold(More)
Muscle eye brain disease (MEB) and Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD) are congenital muscular dystrophies with associated, similar brain malformations. The FCMD gene, fukutin, shares some homology with fringe-like glycosyltransferases, and the MEB gene, POMGnT1, seems to be a new glycosyltransferase. Here we show, in both MEB and FCMD patients,(More)
Dystroglycan is a central component of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex implicated in the pathogenesis of several neuromuscular diseases. Although dystroglycan is expressed by Schwann cells, its normal peripheral nerve functions are unknown. Here we show that selective deletion of Schwann cell dystroglycan results in slowed nerve conduction and nodal(More)
Fukuyama congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD), muscle-eye-brain disease (MEB), and Walker-Warburg syndrome are congenital muscular dystrophies (CMDs) with associated developmental brain defects. Mutations reported in genes of FCMD and MEB patients suggest that the genes may be involved in protein glycosylation. Dystroglycan is a highly glycosylated(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2D (LGMD 2D) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ␣-sarcoglycan gene. To determine how ␣-sarcoglycan deficiency leads to muscle fiber de-generation, we generated and analyzed ␣-sarcoglycan– deficient mice. Sgca-null mice developed progressive muscular dystrophy and, in contrast to other animal(More)
Nodes of Ranvier are specialized axonal domains, at which voltage-gated sodium channels cluster. How axons cluster molecules in discrete domains is mostly unknown. Both axons and glia probably provide constraining mechanisms that contribute to domain formation. Proper sodium channel clustering in peripheral nerves depends on contact from Schwann cell(More)
Many neuromuscular conditions are characterized by an exaggerated exercise-induced fatigue response that is disproportionate to activity level. This fatigue is not necessarily correlated with greater central or peripheral fatigue in patients, and some patients experience severe fatigue without any demonstrable somatic disease. Except in myopathies that are(More)
Striated muscle-specific disruption of the dystroglycan (DAG1) gene results in loss of the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex in differentiated muscle and a remarkably mild muscular dystrophy with hypertrophy and without tissue fibrosis. We find that satellite cells, expressing dystroglycan, support continued efficient regeneration of skeletal muscle along(More)
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) has been linked to 15 chromosomal loci, 7 autosomal-dominant (LGMD1A to E) and 10 autosomal-recessive (LGMD2A to J). To determine the distribution of subtypes among patients in the United States, 6 medical centers evaluated patients with a referral diagnosis of LGMD. Muscle biopsies provided histopathology and(More)
The limb-girdle muscular dystrophies (LGMDs) are a group of muscular dystrophies that share a similar clinical phenotype. Despite this clinical homogeneity, at least 15 different genetic forms of LGMD are now known. Some of these share pathogenetic mechanisms with other forms of muscular dystrophy, such as the sarcoglycanopathies (LGMD 2C-F) and the(More)