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OBJECTIVES Little information exists on national trends in the use of psychotropic medication by children and adolescents. The objective of this report is to compare patterns and predictors of psychotropic medication use by children and adolescents in the United States in 1987 and 1996. METHOD An analysis of medication use data is presented from two(More)
OBJECTIVE This study attempted to estimate the relative risk of developing hyperlipidemia after treatment with antipsychotics in relation to no antipsychotic treatment. METHOD A matched case-control analysis was performed with pharmacy and claims data from California Medicaid (Medi-Cal). Patients were excluded if they were treated for medical disorders or(More)
CONTEXT A decade of increasing antidepressant medication treatment for adolescents and corresponding declines in suicide rates raise the possibility that antidepressants have helped prevent youth suicide. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the relationship between regional changes in antidepressant medication treatment and suicide in adolescents from 1990 to 2000. (More)
BACKGROUND Clinical trials indicate that electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for major depression, but its effectiveness in community settings has not been examined. METHODS In a prospective, naturalistic study involving 347 patients at seven hospitals, clinical outcomes immediately after ECT and over a 24-week follow-up period(More)
OBJECTIVE Nationally representative descriptive data were presented regarding recent trends in the outpatient treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. METHOD Service use data were analyzed in children ages 3 to 18 years from two nationally representative surveys of the U.S. general population, the 1987 National Medical(More)
CONTEXT The rate of outpatient treatment of depression increased markedly in the United States between 1987 and 1997; it is not known whether this trend has continued. OBJECTIVE To assess national trends in the outpatient treatment of depression between 1998 and 2007. DESIGN AND SETTING Analysis of service utilization data from 2 nationally(More)
OBJECTIVE This study compared patients with schizophrenia whose antipsychotic medications were switched to manage treatment-resistant positive psychotic symptoms with those for whom another antipsychotic was added. Psychiatrists' characteristics and perceptions of effectiveness of the medication change on clinical outcomes were also reported. METHODS(More)
This paper introduces a formulation of the robust control problem in the partially observed Markov Decision Process (POMDP) setting. We show that this formulation is the large risk limit of the risk-sensitive control problem. Exploiting this connection, we derive an information state process and dynamic programming equations for the value function. We(More)
OBJECTIVE The authors explored diagnostic and treatment patterns for patients under and over age 65 seen by a nationally representative sample of psychiatrists participating in the American Psychiatric Association's Practice Research Network. METHODS Detailed patient information, including demographic and financial characteristics, diagnoses, service(More)
BACKGROUND Falling duration of psychiatric inpatient stays over the past 2 decades and recent recommendations to tighten federal regulation of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) devices have focused attention on trends in ECT use, but current national data have been unavailable. METHODS We calculated the annual number of inpatient stays involving ECT and(More)