Steven M. Watkins

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Omega-3 fatty acids (omega-3 FAs), DHA and EPA, exert anti-inflammatory effects, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that the G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) functions as an omega-3 FA receptor/sensor. Stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 FAs or a chemical agonist causes broad anti-inflammatory effects in monocytic RAW 264.7 cells(More)
In the urinary bladder, the capsaicin-gated ion channel TRPV1 is expressed both within afferent nerve terminals and within the epithelial cells that line the bladder lumen. To determine the significance of this expression pattern, we analyzed bladder function in mice lacking TRPV1. Compared with wild-type littermates, trpv1(-/-) mice had a higher frequency(More)
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism in individual tissues leads to systemic disruption of insulin action and glucose metabolism. Utilizing quantitative lipidomic analyses and mice deficient in adipose tissue lipid chaperones aP2 and mal1, we explored how metabolic alterations in adipose tissue are linked to whole-body metabolism through lipid signals. A(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main site of protein and lipid synthesis, membrane biogenesis, xenobiotic detoxification and cellular calcium storage, and perturbation of ER homeostasis leads to stress and the activation of the unfolded protein response. Chronic activation of ER stress has been shown to have an important role in the development of(More)
Oxidative stress can trigger neuronal cell death and has been implicated in several chronic neurological diseases and in acute neurological injury. Oxidative toxicity can be induced by glutamate treatment in cells that lack ionotrophic glutamate receptors, such as the immortalized HT22 hippocampal cell line and immature primary cortical neurons. Previously,(More)
UNLABELLED Specific alterations in hepatic lipid composition characterize the spectrum of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which extends from nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). However, the plasma lipidome of NAFLD and whether NASH has a distinct plasma lipidomic signature are unknown. A comprehensive analysis(More)
The synthesis of triglycerides is catalyzed by two known acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. Although they catalyze the same biochemical reaction, these enzymes share no sequence homology, and their relative functions are poorly understood. Gene knockout studies in mice have revealed that DGAT1 contributes to triglyceride synthesis in(More)
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a critical site of protein, lipid, and glucose metabolism, lipoprotein secretion, and calcium homeostasis. Many of the sensing, metabolizing, and signaling mechanisms for these pathways exist within or on the ER membrane domain. Here, we review the cellular functions of ER, how perturbation of ER homeostasis contributes to(More)
Adipose tissue hypoxia and inflammation have been causally implicated in obesity-induced insulin resistance. Here, we report that, early in the course of high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and obesity, adipocyte respiration becomes uncoupled, leading to increased oxygen consumption and a state of relative adipocyte hypoxia. These events are sufficient to trigger(More)