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Knowing the autoantigen target(s) in an organ-specific autoimmune disease is essential to understanding its pathogenesis. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the islets of Langerhans (insulitis) and destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells. Several beta-cell proteins(More)
The presence of normal bacterial flora in the intestinal tract is thought to protect against colonization by pathogens. Only a few specific examples of this protection have been demonstrated for bacterial pathogens and protozoan infections. Mice from one commercial breeding farm were found to be less susceptible to infection with Giardia lamblia than were(More)
An extensive psychometric test battery was administered to 125 children with a reading disability, to their parents and siblings, and to members of 125 matched control familes (N = 1,044). In addition to expected differences in spelling and reading, probands obtained significantly (P less than or equal to .01) lower scores than controls on tests of other(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) ot is a cytokine that has potent immune regulatory functions. To assess the potential role of this cytokine in the early development of autoimmunity, we investigated the effect of TNF on the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a spontaneous murine model for autoimmune,(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha is a cytokine that has potent immune regulatory functions. To assess the potential role of this cytokine in the early development of autoimmunity, we investigated the effect of TNF on the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a spontaneous murine model for autoimmune,(More)
BACKGROUND Metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans. In spite of its therapeutic efficacy for giardiasis, low patient compliance, especially in children, side effects, and the emergence of metronidazole-resistant strains may restrict its use. Albendazole has been used to treat Giardia duodenalis infections in(More)
Infection or other inflammatory insults in the small intestine often result in reduced disaccharidase enzyme levels. Using a mouse model of giardiasis, we examined the role of host immunity and pathogen virulence in mediating disaccharidase deficiency postinfection (p.i.). C57BL/6J mice were infected with two strains, WB and GS, of the human parasite(More)
The protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia synthesizes a diverse and surprisingly abundant array of sterile transcripts unable to code for proteins. Random sampling of cDNAs from two evolutionarily divergent Giardia strains indicates that approximately 20% of cDNAs in the libraries represent polyadenylated sterile transcripts. RNase protection analysis and(More)
Giardia intestinalis is a significant cause of diarrheal disease worldwide. Infections in animal models have been shown to cause changes in gastrointestinal transit that depend on adaptive immune responses and are mediated, in part, through neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Nitric oxide is an inhibitory neurotransmitter, and we therefore investigated(More)