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Protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania undergo a complex life cycle involving transmission by biting sand flies and replication within mammalian macrophage phagolysosomes. A major component of the Leishmania surface coat is the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored polysaccharide called lipophosphoglycan (LPG). LPG has been proposed to play many(More)
Dendritic cell interactions with pathogenic microbes initiate and direct the development of subsequent adaptive responses. The protozoan pathogen Giardia lamblia infects the mammalian small intestine, leading to nutrient malabsorption and diarrhea but rarely causing inflammation. In order to begin to understand how the innate immune system responds to this(More)
CD4+ T cells play a key role in regulating immune system function. When these regulatory processes go awry, organ-specific autoimmune diseases may develop. Here, Roland Liblau, Steven Singer and Hugh McDevitt explore the thesis that a particular subset of CD4+ T cells, namely T helper 1 (Th1) cells, contributes to the pathogenesis of organ-specific(More)
Knowing the autoantigen target(s) in an organ-specific autoimmune disease is essential to understanding its pathogenesis. Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by lymphocytic infiltration of the islets of Langerhans (insulitis) and destruction of insulin-secreting pancreatic beta-cells. Several beta-cell proteins(More)
We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this(More)
The presence of normal bacterial flora in the intestinal tract is thought to protect against colonization by pathogens. Only a few specific examples of this protection have been demonstrated for bacterial pathogens and protozoan infections. Mice from one commercial breeding farm were found to be less susceptible to infection with Giardia lamblia than were(More)
The genetic basis of the ultimate clinical outcomes of human giardiasis has been the subject of numerous investigations. We previously demonstrated roles for both host and parasite factors in determining the outcome of enteric infection in a murine model of Giardia duodenalis infection. In the current study, fecal and serum specimens from healthy controls(More)
Giardia lamblia is the most frequently identified protozoan cause of intestinal infection. Over 200 million people are estimated to have acute or chronic giardiasis, with infection rates approaching 90% in areas where Giardia is endemic. Despite its significance in global health, the mechanisms of pathogenesis associated with giardiasis remain unclear, as(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) alpha is a cytokine that has potent immune regulatory functions. To assess the potential role of this cytokine in the early development of autoimmunity, we investigated the effect of TNF on the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) in nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice, a spontaneous murine model for autoimmune,(More)
Transglutaminase-catalyzed epsilon(gamma-glutamyl)lysine cross-links exist in Alzheimer's disease (AD) paired helical filament (PHF) tau protein but not normal soluble tau. To test the hypothesis that these cross-links could play a role in the formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), we used single- and double-label immunofluorescence confocal microscopy(More)