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BACKGROUND Binocular rivalry refers to the alternating perceptual states that occur when the images seen by the two eyes are too different to be fused into a single percept. Logothetis and colleagues have challenged suggestions that this phenomenon occurs early in the visual pathway. They have shown that, in alert monkeys, neurons in the primary visual(More)
Binocular rivalry occurs when conflicting images are presented in corresponding locations of the two eyes. Perception alternates between the images at a rate that is relatively stable within individuals but that varies widely between individuals. The determinants of this variation are unknown. In addition, slow binocular rivalry has been demonstrated in(More)
in E2 binding [17]. The equivalent position typically contains an aromatic or hydrophobic residue in the RING fingers and particularly in the U box, where it is almost invariably aromatic (Figure 1). The structural models show that this aromatic residue in the RING fingers and in the U-box domain is exposed (Figure 2) and could directly contribute to(More)
In addressing the scientific study of consciousness, Crick and Koch state, " It is probable that at any moment some active neuronal processes in your head correlate with consciousness, while others do not: what is the difference between them? " (1998, p. 97). Evidence from electro-physiological and brain-imaging studies of binocular rivalry supports the(More)
OBJECTIVE Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) has traditionally been used as a tool for neurological diagnosis. More recently, however, it has been applied to a range of phenomena within the cognitive neurosciences. Here, we provide an overview of such studies and review our work using CVS to investigate the neural mechanisms of a visual phenomenon -(More)
OBJECTIVE In the past decade, much has been written about 'the hard problem' of consciousness in the philosophy of mind. However, a separate hard problem faces the scientific study of consciousness. The problem arises when distinguishing the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and the neural constitution of consciousness. Here, I explain this(More)
Binocular rivalry is an extraordinary visual phenomenon that has engaged investigators for centuries. Since its first report, there has been vigorous debate over how the brain achieves the perceptual alternations that occur when conflicting images are presented simultaneously, one to each eye. Opposing high-level/stimulus-representation models and(More)
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) are safe methods for selectively modulating cortical excitability and activation, respectively, which have recently received increased interest regarding possible clinical applications. tDCS involves the application of low currents to the scalp via cathodal and anodal(More)
Exceptions, situations that cannot be correctly processed by computer systems, occur frequently in computer-based information processes. Five perspectives on exceptions provide insights into why exceptions occur and how they might be eliminated or more efficiently handled. We investigate these perspectives using an in-depth study of an operating information(More)
Functional brain-imaging studies of house-face binocular rivalry and Rubin's vase-faces illusion have consistently reported face perception-dependent activity in the right fusiform gyrus. Here we use Rubin's illusion and report that activation of the left hemisphere by caloric vestibular stimulation increases the predominance of the faces percept in a(More)