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BACKGROUND Binocular rivalry refers to the alternating perceptual states that occur when the images seen by the two eyes are too different to be fused into a single percept. Logothetis and colleagues have challenged suggestions that this phenomenon occurs early in the visual pathway. They have shown that, in alert monkeys, neurons in the primary visual(More)
Binocular rivalry occurs when conflicting images are presented in corresponding locations of the two eyes. Perception alternates between the images at a rate that is relatively stable within individuals but that varies widely between individuals. The determinants of this variation are unknown. In addition, slow binocular rivalry has been demonstrated in(More)
In addressing the scientific study of consciousness, Crick and Koch state, " It is probable that at any moment some active neuronal processes in your head correlate with consciousness, while others do not: what is the difference between them? " (1998, p. 97). Evidence from electro-physiological and brain-imaging studies of binocular rivalry supports the(More)
in E2 binding [17]. The equivalent position typically contains an aromatic or hydrophobic residue in the RING fingers and particularly in the U box, where it is almost invariably aromatic (Figure 1). The structural models show that this aromatic residue in the RING fingers and in the U-box domain is exposed (Figure 2) and could directly contribute to(More)
Binocular rivalry is an extraordinary visual phenomenon that has engaged investigators for centuries. Since its first report, there has been vigorous debate over how the brain achieves the perceptual alternations that occur when conflicting images are presented simultaneously, one to each eye. Opposing high-level/stimulus-representation models and(More)
OBJECTIVE Caloric vestibular stimulation (CVS) has traditionally been used as a tool for neurological diagnosis. More recently, however, it has been applied to a range of phenomena within the cognitive neurosciences. Here, we provide an overview of such studies and review our work using CVS to investigate the neural mechanisms of a visual phenomenon -(More)
Tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+currents are expressed in a variety of muscle cells including human jejunal circular smooth muscle (HJCSM) cells. The aim of this study was to determine the molecular identity of the pore-forming alpha-subunit of the HJCSM Na+ channel. Degenerate primers identified a cDNA fragment of 1.5 kb with 99% nucleotide homology with human(More)
OBJECTIVE In the past decade, much has been written about 'the hard problem' of consciousness in the philosophy of mind. However, a separate hard problem faces the scientific study of consciousness. The problem arises when distinguishing the neural correlates of consciousness (NCC) and the neural constitution of consciousness. Here, I explain this(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Sodium channels are key regulators of neuronal and muscle excitability. However, sodium channels have not been definitively identified in gastrointestinal smooth muscle. The aim of the present study was to determine if a Na(+) current is present in human jejunal circular smooth muscle cells. METHODS Currents were recorded from freshly(More)
Nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO) seem to be neurotransmitters in the brain. The colocalization of their respective biosynthetic enzymes, neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) and heme oxygenase-2 (HO2), in enteric neurons and altered intestinal function in mice with genomic deletion of the enzymes (nNOS(Delta/Delta) and HO2(Delta/Delta)) suggest(More)