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The minimum evaluation of a patient suspected of nontubercu-lous mycobacterial (NTM) lung disease should include the following: (1) chest radiograph or, in the absence of cavitation, chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scan; (2) three or more sputum specimens for acid-fast bacilli (AFB) analysis; and (3) exclusion of other disorders, such as(More)
We report the updated classification of primary immunodeficiencies compiled by the Primary Immunodeficiency Expert Committee (PID EC) of the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS). In the two years since the previous version, 34 new gene defects are reported in this updated version. For each disorder, the key clinical and laboratory features(More)
The autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES, 'Job's syndrome') is characterized by recurrent and often severe pulmonary infections, pneumatoceles, eczema, staphylococcal abscesses, mucocutaneous candidiasis, and abnormalities of bone and connective tissue. Mutations presumed to underlie HIES have recently been identified in stat3, the gene encoding(More)
Mechanical stretch is a hallmark of arterial hypertension and leads to vessel wall remodeling, which involves matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Because mechanical stretch is further capable of inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation via the NAD(P)H oxidase, we assessed whether mechanical stretch enhances MMP expression and activity in a NAD(P)H(More)
It has previously been thought that there was a steep Cretaceous and Cenozoic radiation of marine invertebrates. This pattern can be replicated with a new data set of fossil occurrences representing 3.5 million specimens, but only when older analytical protocols are used. Moreover, analyses that employ sampling standardization and more robust counting(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are required in a number of critical cellular signaling events, including those underlying hippocampal synaptic plasticity and hippocampus-dependent memory; however, the source of ROS is unknown. We previously have shown that NADPH oxidase is required for N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-dependent signal transduction in the(More)
Oxidative stress to DNA is recognized as one of the mechanisms for the carcinogenic effects of some environmental agents. Numerous studies have been conducted in an attempt to document the fact that chemical carcinogens that are thought to induce production of oxidants also cause the formation of oxidative DNA lesions. Although many DNA adducts continue to(More)
It was shown that 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (Wy-14,643), a potent peroxisome proliferator, caused rapid oxidant-dependent activation of nuclear factor ␬B (NF-␬B) in Kupffer cells in vivo and activated superoxide production by isolated Kupffer cells. Here, we tested the hypothesis that NADPH oxidase (NADPH OX) is the source of(More)
Aspergillus viridinutans, a mold phenotypically resembling A. fumigatus, was identified by gene sequence analyses from 2 patients. Disease was distinct from typical aspergillosis, being chronic and spreading in a contiguous manner across anatomical planes. We emphasize the recognition of fumigati-mimetic molds as agents of chronic or refractory(More)
In mid-September 2007, 32 paleontologists gathered at the Smithsonian Institution to spend four days discussing research frontiers in paleoecol-ogy, particularly at the interface with neoecology. They represented expertise throughout the Phanerozoic and in all major groups of fossilizable organisms. This meeting was timely, given the increasing evidence of(More)