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OBJECTIVES To analyse pressure changes induced by muscarinic agonists on the isolated bladder in order to examine whether there are different responses representing different components of a motor/sensory system within the bladder wall. MATERIALS AND METHODS Whole isolated bladders from 19 female guinea-pigs (280-400 g) were used. A cannula was inserted(More)
Antimuscarinic drugs are generally thought to exert their therapeutic action on detrusor overactivity by reducing the ability of the detrusor muscle to contract. We review currently available published data to establish whether there is any evidence to support this contention. Using a PubMed data search, only 14 original articles (including two abstracts)(More)
The Late Devonian genus Ichthyostega was for many decades the earliest known tetrapod, and the sole representative of a transitional form between a fish and a land vertebrate. However, despite being known since 1932 (ref. 1) from a large collection of specimens, its morphology remained enigmatic and not what was expected of a very primitive tetrapod. Its(More)
UNLABELLED Study Type--Aetiology (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? The factors taken into consideration when determining when and where to void are poorly understood. Studies on bladder sensations, obtained during cystometry of from voiding diaries, are proving difficult to transfer to everyday(More)
UNLABELLED Study Type - Therapy (cohort) Level of Evidence 2b What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? Apart from bladder tumour multiplicity, size, stage, grade and presence of cis, early recurrence following white light TURBT for new bladder tumours is also determined by surgeon experience, completeness of resection and presence or(More)
OBJECTIVE To quantify changes in autonomous activity in response to alterations in intravesical volume, to explore the possible underlying regulatory mechanisms. MATERIALS AND METHODS Experiments were conducted using whole isolated bladders from six female guinea pigs (280-400 g). A cannula was inserted into the urethra to monitor intravesical pressure(More)
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