Steven L. Small

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Observing a speaker's mouth profoundly influences speech perception. For example, listeners perceive an "illusory" "ta" when the video of a face producing /ka/ is dubbed onto an audio /pa/. Here, we show how cortical areas supporting speech production mediate this illusory percept and audiovisual (AV) speech perception more generally. Specifically, cortical(More)
Phonological processes map sound information onto higher levels of language processing and provide the mechanisms by which verbal information can be temporarily stored in working memory. Despite a strong convergence of data suggesting both left lateralization and distributed encoding in the anterior and posterior perisylvian language areas, the nature and(More)
Motor imagery, the 'mental rehearsal of motor acts without overt movements', involves either a visual representation (visual imagery, VI) or mental simulation of movement, associated with a kinesthetic feeling (kinetic imagery, KI). Previous brain imaging work suggests that patterns of brain activation differ when comparing execution (E) with either type of(More)
Neurophysiological research suggests that understanding the actions of others harnesses neural circuits that would be used to produce those actions directly. We used fMRI to examine brain areas active during language comprehension in which the speaker was seen and heard while talking (audiovisual) or heard but not seen (audio-alone) or when the speaker was(More)
Although functional lateralization in the human brain has been studied intensively, there remains significant controversy over the brain mechanisms that instantiate it. The main objective of the present study is to characterize the regions associated with the generation of different movements by the fingers of both hands by right- and left-handed people.(More)
The human brain demonstrates complex yet systematic patterns of neural activity at rest. We examined whether functional connectivity among those brain regions typically active during rest depends on ongoing and recent task demands and individual differences. We probed the temporal coordination among these regions during periods of language comprehension and(More)
Speech-associated gestures are hand and arm movements that not only convey semantic information to listeners but are themselves actions. Broca's area has been assumed to play an important role both in semantic retrieval or selection (as part of a language comprehension system) and in action recognition (as part of a "mirror" or "observation-execution(More)
High-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy volunteers was used to study the functional anatomy of the human primary motor (M1) and somatosensory (S1) cortical hand representations during simple movements of thumb, little finger and wrist and a sequential movement of the middle three fingers. Rest served as a control state. The results(More)
Experience alters behavior by producing enduring changes in the neural processes that support performance. For example, performing a specific action improves the execution of that action via changes in associated sensory and motor neural circuitry, and experience using language improves language comprehension by altering the anatomy and physiology of(More)
Mirror neurons discharge during the execution of hand object-directed actions and during the observation of the same actions performed by other individuals. These neurons were first identified in the ventral premotor cortex (area F5) and later on in the inferior parietal lobule of monkey brain, thus constituting the mirror neuron system. More recently,(More)