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Second generation therapeutic proteins are now being produced by in vitro mutagenesis of the relevant genes. Of some concern, however, is the possibility that these altered proteins will be immunogenic and the antibodies raised will also recognize the endogenous protein with undesirable consequences. We have designed a biological system to test these(More)
Etoposide is a widely prescribed anticancer drug that stabilizes covalent topoisomerase II-cleaved DNA complexes. The drug contains a polycyclic ring system (rings A-D), a glycosidic moiety at C4, and a pendant ring (E-ring) at C1. Interactions between human topoisomerase IIα and etoposide in the binary enzyme--drug complex appear to be mediated by(More)
We have produced transgenic mouse strains harboring class II major histocompatibility complex or interferon-gamma genes linked to the human insulin promoter. These experiments were designed to investigate the consequences of the expression of immunological effector molecules by nonimmunological cells. In both of these studies we observed the disappearance(More)
The hypogonadal (hpg) mouse lacks a complete gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) gene and consequently cannot reproduce. Introduction of an intact GnRH gene into the genome of these mutant mice resulted in complete reversal of the hypogonadal phenotype. Transgenic hpg/hpg homozygotes of both sexes were capable of mating and producing offspring. Pituitary(More)
Transcription initiated within the mouse mammary tumor virus (MTV) long terminal repeat (LTR) is regulated by glucocorticoids, androgens, and estrogen. However, expression of the virus in vivo and transcription of MTV LTR fusion genes in transgenic mice are not readily interpretable solely in terms of the influence of these hormones. To investigate whether(More)
F14512 is a novel etoposide derivative that contains a spermine in place of the C4 glycosidic moiety. The drug was designed to exploit the polyamine transport system that is upregulated in some cancers. However, a preliminary study suggests that it is also a more efficacious topoisomerase II poison than etoposide [Barret et al. (2008) Cancer Res. 68,(More)
It has long been known that type II topoisomerases require divalent metal ions in order to cleave DNA. Kinetic, mutagenesis and structural studies indicate that the eukaryotic enzymes utilize a novel variant of the canonical two-metal-ion mechanism to promote DNA scission. However, the role of metal ions in the cleavage reaction mediated by bacterial type(More)
We have produced a line of transgenic mice in which expression of human GH has been detected only in the cerebral cortex. Both male and female transgenic mice are growth inhibited with respect to their nontransgenic littermates. Mouse GH mRNA and insulin-like growth factor-I mRNA levels in the pituitary and liver, respectively, are reduced, and circulating(More)
These results describe controlled regulation of a mammalian neural gene in transgenic mice. Analysis of truncated GnRH-GAP genes in transgenic mice will enable us to define the DNA sequences responsible for this control. Furthermore, by separate mutation of the GnRH and GAP coding sequences we will be able to determine the relative importance of these two(More)
A series of novel ether-linked dimers of demethylepipodophyllotoxin are topoisomerase II poisons that exhibit higher levels of double-stranded versus single-stranded DNA cleavage than their corresponding monomers. The dimers also have higher levels of tumor cell cytotoxicity than the monomers, lending support to the two-drug model for interaction of(More)