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A series of 14C measurements in Ocean Drilling Program cores from the tropical Cariaco Basin, which have been correlated to the annual-layer counted chronology for the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core, provides a high-resolution calibration of the radiocarbon time scale back to 50,000 years before the present. Independent radiometric dating of(More)
Recent advances in integrative studies of locomotion have revealed several general principles. Energy storage and exchange mechanisms discovered in walking and running bipeds apply to multilegged locomotion and even to flying and swimming. Nonpropulsive lateral forces can be sizable, but they may benefit stability, maneuverability, or other criteria that(More)
We determined the effects of distraction on gait in healthy elderly subjects and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. The effects of simultaneous performance of a verbal fluency task (effect of reciting male or female names) on the time and number of steps taken to walk 30 feet were compared using a repeated-measures design with between-group comparison(More)
Anticipatory postural adjustments (APA) during bimanual actions can be observed when participants hold an object in one hand and then lift it with the other hand. The postural force used to hold the object is reduced in anticipation of unloading, indicating an accurate prediction of the change in load. We examined patients with unilateral or bilateral(More)
A sixth order nonlinear model for horizontal head rotations in humans is presented and investigated using experimental results on head movement trajectories and neck muscle EMG. The controller signals, structured in accordance with time optimal control theory, are parameterized, and controller signal parameter variations show a dominating influence on(More)
We have performed tests to find the mechanical properties of the hand and muscles driving wrist flexion and extension, and have identified parameters of a model. The hand acts as a nearly pure inertial load over most of its range of motion. It can be approximated as a rigid body rotating about a single axis. Viscosity of the wrist joint is negligible.(More)
In the unloading task, a weight is held in the palm of one hand. When an external agent removes the weight, an upward perturbation of the loaded hand is observed. However, when a person removes the weight by lifting it with their own hand, the perturbation is attenuated due to an anticipatory adjustment of the flexor muscles in the load-bearing arm. An(More)
A sixth order nonlinear model for horizontal head rotations in humans is analyzed using an extended parameter sensitivity analysis and a global optimization algorithm. The sensitivity analysis is used in both the direct sense, as a model fitting tool, and in the indirect sense, as a guide to experimental design. Resolution is defined in terms of the(More)
We investigated how people control fast, accurate movements of a load using a simple two-hand grasp. By providing a clear instruction to several subjects, we isolated a single control strategy. The kinematics produced by this control strategy are nearly indistinguishable from those produced during singlehand movements, but the torques are quite different:(More)