Steven L. Kunkel

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In this study, we demonstrate that the CXC family of chemokines displays disparate angiogenic activity depending upon the presence or absence of the ELR motif. CXC chemokines containing the ELR motif (ELR-CXC chemokines) were found to be potent angiogenic factors, inducing both in vitro endothelial chemotaxis and in vivo corneal neovascularization. In(More)
Angiogenic factors produced by monocytes-macrophages are involved in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammatory disorders characterized by persistent angiogenesis. The possibility was tested that interleukin-8 (IL-8), which is a cytokine that is chemotactic for lymphocytes and neutrophils, is also angiogenic. Human recombinant IL-8 was potently angiogenic(More)
Ligands from dying cells are a source of Toll-like receptor (TLR) activating agents. Although TLR3 is known to respond to RNA from necrotic cells, the relative importance of this response in vivo during acute inflammatory processes has not been fully explored. We observed the involvement of TLR3 activation during experimental polymicrobial septic(More)
Neutrophils have been implicated in the pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We have measured concentrations of the neutrophil attractant interleukin-8 in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) from patients at risk of ARDS. We studied 29 patients from three groups at risk of developing ARDS: multiple trauma (n = 16),(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a potent agonist for mononuclear leukocytes and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and granulomatous lung disease. To determine the role of MCP-1 and related family members in vivo, we used homologous recombination in embryonic stem cells to generate mice with a targeted disruption of C-C(More)
The present study was designed to elucidate the effects of the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Experiments were conducted under in vitro conditions (coculture of brain endothelial cells and astrocytes) to study the cellular effects of MCP-1 and under in vivo conditions (intracerebral and(More)
Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) inhibits fibroblast proliferation and collagen synthesis. In this study, we compared lung fibroblasts isolated from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (F-IPF) and from patients undergoing resectional surgery for lung cancer (F-nl) with respect to their capacity for PGE2 synthesis and their expression and regulation of(More)
Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages play critical roles in diverse chronic diseases, including parasite infections, cancer, and allergic responses. However, little is known about the acquisition and maintenance of their phenotype. We report that M2-macrophage marker genes are epigenetically regulated by reciprocal changes in histone H3 lysine-4 (H3K4)(More)
Monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1) is a CC chemokine that attracts monocytes, memory T lymphocytes, and natural killer cells. Because other chemokines have similar target cell specificities and because CCR2, a cloned MCP-1 receptor, binds other ligands, it has been uncertain whether MCP-1 plays a unique role in recruiting mononuclear cells in vivo.(More)