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The Monte Carlo method is rapidly becoming the model of choice for simulating light transport in tissue. This paper provides all the details necessary for implementation of a Monte Carlo program. Variance reduction schemes that improve the efficiency of the Monte Carlo method are discussed. Analytic expressions facilitating convolution calculations for(More)
A review of reported tissue optical properties summarizes the wavelength-dependent behavior of scattering and absorption. Formulae are presented for generating the optical properties of a generic tissue with variable amounts of absorbing chromophores (blood, water, melanin, fat, yellow pigments) and a variable balance between small-scale scatterers and(More)
Light distributions in biological tissues are summarized in simple expressions for spherical, cylindrical and planar geometries due to point sources, line sources and planar sources. The goal is to provide workable tools for computing light distributions that govern the amount and distribution of photochemical reactions in experimental solutions, films and(More)
Laser-induced autofluorescence measurement of the brain was performed to assess its spectroscopic properties and to distinguish brain tumors from the normal tissues. The excitation-induced emission spectra were plotted on a 2-dimensional map, the excitation-emission matrix, to determine the excitation wavelengths most sensitive for the spectroscopic(More)
The ear is a remarkably sensitive pressure fluctuation detector. In guinea pigs, behavioral measurements indicate a minimum detectable sound pressure of ∼20 μPa at 16 kHz. Such faint sounds produce 0.1-nm basilar membrane displacements, a distance smaller than conformational transitions in ion channels. It seems that noise within the auditory system would(More)
OBJECTIVE Polarized light can be used to obtain images of superficial tissue layers such as skin, and some example images are presented. This study presents a study of the transition of linearly polarized light into randomly polarized light during light propagation through tissues. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS The transition of polarization was(More)
A tutorial introduction to diffuse light transport is presented. The basic analytic equations of time-resolved, steady-state and modulated light transport are introduced. The perturbation method for handling slight heterogeneities in optical properties is outlined. The treatment of boundary conditions such as an air/tissue surface is described. Finite(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian hearing is refined by amplification of the sound-evoked vibration of the cochlear partition. This amplification is at least partly due to forces produced by protein motors residing in the cylindrical body of the outer hair cell. To transmit power to the cochlear partition, it is required that the outer hair cells dynamically change(More)
Interferometric measurement of the vibration of the organ of Corti in the isolated guinea pig cochlea was conducted using low-coherence light (1310+/-47 nm wavelength) from a superluminescent diode. The short coherence length of the light source localized measurements along the axial direction to within a approximately 10-microm window (in tissue), even(More)
The scattering anisotropy, g, of tissue can be a powerful metric of tissue structure, and is most directly measured via goniometry and fitting to the Henyey-Greenstein phase function. We present a method based on an independent attenuation measurement of the scattering coefficient along with Monte Carlo simulations to account for multiple scattering,(More)