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A Monte Carlo model of steady-state light transport in multi-layered tissues (MCML) has been coded in ANSI Standard C; therefore, the program can be used on various computers. Dynamic data allocation is used for MCML, hence the number of tissue layers and grid elements of the grid system can be varied by users at run time. The coordinates of the simulated(More)
A review of reported tissue optical properties summarizes the wavelength-dependent behavior of scattering and absorption. Formulae are presented for generating the optical properties of a generic tissue with variable amounts of absorbing chromophores (blood, water, melanin, fat, yellow pigments) and a variable balance between small-scale scatterers and(More)
Intralipid is an intravenous nutrient consisting of an emulsion of phospholipid micelles and water. Because Intralipid is turbid and has no strong absorption bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, and is readily available and relatively inexpensive, it is often used as a tissue simulating phantom medium in light dosimetry experiments.(More)
We report the development of a heterogeneous resin-tube model to study the influence of blood vessels on the apparent absorption of the system, mu a(sys), using a time-resolved technique. The experimental results show that mu a(sys) depends on the absorption inside the tubes, mu a(tube), tube diameters, and tube-to-sample volume ratios. A mathematical(More)
BACKGROUND AND DESIGN The clinical objective in the treatment of a patient with port-wine stain (PWS) undergoing laser therapy is to maximize thermal damage to the PWS, while at the same time minimizing nonspecific injury to the normal overlying epidermis. With dynamic cooling, the epidermis can be cooled selectively. When a cryogen spurt is applied to the(More)
With existing optical imaging techniques three-dimensional (3-D) mapping of microvascular perfusion within tissue beds is severely limited by the efficient scattering and absorption of light by tissue. To overcome these limitations we have developed a method of optical angiography (OAG) that can generate 3-D angiograms within millimeter tissue depths by(More)
The role of modeling in designing new treatment protocols and instruments is discussed. A computer program for modeling laser-tissue interaction named Latis is described. Interactions are divided into the processes of laser propagation, thermal effects, material effects, and hydrodynamics. Full coupling of the processes is taken into consideration.(More)
The dispersive nature of the acousto-optical deflector (AOD) presents a challenge to applications of two sequential orthogonal AODs (a two-dimensional AOD) as XY scanners in multiphoton microscopy. Introducing a prism before the two-dimensional (2D) AOD allows both temporal and spatial dispersion to be compensated for simultaneously. A 90 fs laser pulse was(More)
The Theoretical study of thermal damage processes in laser irradiated tissue provides further insight into the design of optimal coagulation procedures. Controlled laser coagulation of tissue was studied theoretically using a finite element method with a modulating laser heat source to simulate feedback controlled laser delivery with a constant surface(More)
The mode of cell death following photodynamic therapy was investigated from the perspective of programmed cell death or apoptosis. Human prostate carcinoma cells (PC3), human non-small cell lung carcinoma (H322a) and rat mammary carcinoma (MTF7) were treated by photodynamic therapy. An examination of extracted cellular DNA by gel electrophoresis showed the(More)