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Stickler and Marshall syndromes are dominantly inherited chondrodysplasias characterized by midfacial hypoplasia, high myopia, and sensorineural-hearing deficit. Since the characteristics of these syndromes overlap, it has been argued whether they are distinct entities or different manifestations of a single syndrome. Several mutations causing Stickler(More)
CHARGE association is a nonrandom pattern of congenital anomalies that occurs together more frequently than one would expect on the basis of chance. This common multiple anomaly condition has an estimated prevalence of 1:10,000. The number of children diagnosed with CHARGE association is increasing, owing presumably to greater awareness of this condition(More)
Usher syndrome type IIa (OMIM 276901), an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderate to severe sensorineural hearing loss and progressive retinitis pigmentosa, maps to the long arm of human chromosome 1q41 between markers AFM268ZD1 and AFM144XF2. Three biologically important mutations in Usher syndrome type IIa patients were identified in a gene(More)
Usher syndrome is the most commonly recognized cause of combined visual and hearing loss in technologically developed countries. There are several different types and all are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. There may be as many as five different genes responsible for at least two closely related phenotypes. The nature of the gene defects is(More)
Four patients with features suggestive of chromosome disorders but with normal lymphocyte karyotypes were found to have chromosome aberrations in skin fibroblast karyotypes. Although mosaicism for chromosome abnormalities in lymphocyte cultures is common, apparent restriction of mosaicism to one tissue is unusual. We suggest that after examination of(More)
Usher syndrome is characterized by congenital hearing loss, progressive visual impairment due to retinitis pigmentosa, and variable vestibular problems. The two subtypes of Usher syndrome, types I and II, can be distinguished by the degree of hearing loss and by the presence or absence of vestibular dysfunction. Type I is characterized by a profound hearing(More)
Usher syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe hearing loss or deafness and retinitis pigmentosa. Eleven families with 25 affected members were studied. The test battery included genetic studies, clinical examination, audiological, ophthalmologic, and otoneurological tests, and magnetic resonance imaging. Sixteen affected persons(More)
The issue of genetic heterogeneity is a critical problem in the localization of the gene(s) for Usher syndrome. Based on the data obtained on families studied to date, the differences between type I and type II Usher syndrome appear quite distinct with regard to auditory and vestibular function. Although the majority of families can be confidently diagnosed(More)
Fifteen patients with CHARGE syndrome are described, nine sporadic and six familial. A recognizable pattern of malformations is present which appears to constitute a syndrome rather than a non-random association. In addition to acronymic features of Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of the choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear(More)
Ear anomalies and hearing loss are major components of CHARGE Syndrome. This paper describes the external ear anomalies found in this syndrome: short wide pinnae, often cupped and asymmetrical; distinctive triangular concha; discontinuity between the antihelix and antitragus; and 'snipped-off' portions of the helical folds. The patterns of anomalies are so(More)