Steven K. Spencer

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Arsenic is a known carcinogen specifically linked to skin cancer occurrence in regions with highly contaminated drinking water or in individuals who took arsenic-containing medicines. Presently, it is unknown whether such effects occur at environmental levels found in the United States. To address this question, the authors used data collected on 587 basal(More)
BACKGROUND Although infection with human papillomaviruses (HPVs) is a major risk factor for several epithelial cancers, an etiologic relationship between HPV and keratinocyte cancers, such as squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), remains unclear. METHODS In a population-based case-control study of 252 SCC case patients, 525 BCC(More)
OBJECTIVE To estimate the relative risk of developing basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after receiving therapeutic ionizing radiation. DESIGN Population-based case-control study. SETTING New Hampshire. PATIENTS A total of 592 cases of BCC and 289 cases of SCC identified through a statewide surveillance system and 536 age-(More)
The genotoxic effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation are well-known causes of skin cancers; however, UV radiation also suppresses the immune system, decreasing the body's surveillance for tumor cells. In experimental systems, UV radiation immunosuppression is at least partially mediated through urocanic acid (UCA), an UV radiation-absorbing molecule in the(More)
We conducted a study to estimate the current incidence rates of basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin in the population of New Hampshire (NH), USA, and to quantify recent changes in the incidence rates of these malignancies. BCCs and SCCs diagnosed among NH residents were identified through physician practices and central(More)
The glucagonoma syndrome is characterized by dermatitis, stomatitis, elevated serum glucagon levels, abnormal glucose tolerance, weight loss, and anemia--all in association with a glucagon-secreting alpha-cell tumor of the pancreas. A review of 21 cases showed strikingly similar features. A generalized, symmetrical dermatitis initially appeared to be(More)
BACKGROUND Beta carotene has been associated with a decreased risk of human cancer in many studies employing dietary questionnaires or blood measurements, and it has had protective effects in some animal models of carcinogenesis. METHODS We tested the possible cancer-preventing effects of beta carotene by randomly assigning 1805 patients who had had a(More)
Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is common worldwide and, in immunodeficient populations, may contribute to the pathogenesis of keratinocyte cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). However, their role in SCC in the general population is less clear. We conducted a comprehensive analysis to investigate the independent effects of(More)
Oral contraceptives (OCs) affect the risk of several cancers in women, but have been virtually unstudied for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We examined the hypothesis that OCs influence SCC risk in a case-control study among women and also examined whether polymorphisms in the DNA repair gene, Xeroderma pigmentosum group D (XPD), modified the risk. Incident(More)