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Adrenal aldosterone-producing adenomas (APAs) constitutively produce the salt-retaining hormone aldosterone and are a common cause of severe hypertension. Recurrent mutations in the potassium channel gene KCNJ5 that result in cell depolarization and Ca(2+) influx cause ∼40% of these tumors. We identified 5 somatic mutations (4 altering Gly403 and 1 altering(More)
BACKGROUND Drug resistance in breast cancer is a major obstacle to successful chemotherapy. In this study we used cDNA microarray technology to examine gene expression profiles obtained from fine needle aspiration (FNA) of primary breast tumors before and after systemic chemotherapy. Our goal was to determine the feasibility of obtaining representative(More)
With the role of angiogenesis in tumor growth and progression firmly established, considerable effort has been directed to antiangiogenic therapy as a new modality to treat human cancers. Antiangiogenic agents have recently received much widespread attention but strategies for their optimal use are still being developed. Gene therapy represents an(More)
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) is an autosomal dominant syndrome caused by mutations in the MEN1 tumor suppressor gene. Loss of the functional second copy of the MEN1 gene causes individuals to develop multiple endocrine tumors, primarily affecting the parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreas. While it is clear that the protein encoded by MEN1,(More)
Induction of permeability across endothelial cell monolayers by tumor necrosis factor (TNF) occurs via a tissue factor–dependent mechanism: relationship between the procoagulant and permeability effects of TNF Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has marked effects on permeability and procoagulant activity on tumor-associated neovascula-ture when used in isolation(More)
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) describe a heterogeneous group of tumors with a wide range of morphologic, functional, and behavioral characteristics. These tumors are generally slow growing and behave in an indolent fashion. However, they have the potential to spread, primarily to the liver and when they do, they can be life threatening and difficult to treat(More)
PURPOSE A novel nanomedicine, CYT-6091, constructed by simultaneously binding recombinant human tumor necrosis factor alpha (rhTNF) and thiolyated polyethylene glycol to the surface of 27-nm colloidal gold particles, was tested in a phase I dose escalation clinical trial in advanced stage cancer patients. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN CYT-6091, whose dosing was(More)
PURPOSE Over the past 60 years, cytotoxic chemotherapy has targeted the cancer cell. Despite this, there have been few cancer cures. A new approach to cancer therapy is to target the multicellular biological entity of the tumor microenvironment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN Lenalidomide, an immunomodulatory drug, sunitinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, and(More)
BACKGROUND Under the direction and sponsorship of the National Cancer Institute, we report on the first pre-clinical trial of the Comparative Oncology Trials Consortium (COTC). The COTC is a novel infrastructure to integrate cancers that naturally develop in pet dogs into the development path of new human drugs. Trials are designed to address questions(More)