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BACKGROUND We tested the hypothesis that prophylactic cardiac-resynchronization therapy in the form of biventricular stimulation with a pacemaker with or without a defibrillator would reduce the risk of death and hospitalization among patients with advanced chronic heart failure and intraventricular conduction delays. METHODS A total of 1520 patients who(More)
BACKGROUND Results of previous studies support the hypothesis that implantable haemodynamic monitoring systems might reduce rates of hospitalisation in patients with heart failure. We undertook a single-blind trial to assess this approach. METHODS Patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class III heart failure, irrespective of the left ventricular(More)
| T he use of data to evaluate models is fundamental to science. Ideally, evaluations can be controlled and optimized in the laboratory; in most cases, however, atmospheric scientists have to perform model–data intercomparisons by taking advantage of the uncontrolled opportunities that nature provides. A model-evaluation project is complicated in at least(More)
Cloud amount statistics from three different sources were processed and compared. Surface observations from a National Centers for Environmental Prediction dataset were used. The data (Edited Cloud Report; ECR) consist of synoptic weather reports that have been edited to facilitate cloud analysis. Two stations near the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and(More)
[1] This study quantitatively evaluates the overall performance of nine single-column models (SCMs) and four cloud-resolving models (CRMs) in simulating a strong midlatitude frontal cloud system taken from the spring 2000 Cloud Intensive Observational Period at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site. The evaluation data are(More)
Cloud radar data collected at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Southern Great Plains site were used to evaluate the properties of cirrus clouds that occurred in a cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulation of the 29-day summer 1997 intensive observation period (IOP). The simulation was ''forced'' by the large-scale advective temperature and(More)
Eleven different single-column models (SCMs) and one cloud ensemble model (CEM) are driven by boundary conditions observed at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program southern Great Plains site for a 17 day period during the summer of 1995. Comparison of the model simulations reveals common signatures identifiable as products of errors in the(More)
The purpose of the GEWEX Cloud System Study (GCSS; GEWEX is the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment) is to develop better parameterizations of cloud systems within climate and numerical weather prediction models, with an emphasis on the climate applications. The strategy of GCSS is to use two distinct kinds of models to analyze and understand(More)
This dissertation has been read by each member of the following supervisory committee and by majority vote has been found to be satisfactory. I have read the dissertation of Shuairen Liu in its final form and have found that (1) its format, citations, and bibliographic style are consistent and acceptable; (2) its illustrative materials including figures,(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation is associated with higher mortality. Identification of causes of death and contemporary risk factors for all-cause mortality may guide interventions. METHODS AND RESULTS In the Rivaroxaban Once Daily Oral Direct Factor Xa Inhibition Compared with Vitamin K Antagonism for Prevention of Stroke and Embolism Trial in Atrial(More)