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Retinal detachment, the separation of the neural retina from the retinal pigmented epithelium, starts a cascade of events that results in cellular changes throughout the retina. While the degeneration of the light sensitive photoreceptor outer segments is clearly an important event, there are many other cellular changes that have the potential to(More)
Electron microscopic examination of the bases of adult rod and cone outer segments (rhesus monkey, ground squirrel, and grey squirrel) has led to a new model of disc morphogenesis. In this model the disc surfaces and disc rims develop by separate mechanisms and from separate regions of the membrane of the inner face of the cilium. This membrane is(More)
Recent evidence suggests that the adult mammalian retina is far more plastic than was previously thought. Retinal detachment induces changes beyond the degeneration of outer segments (OS). Changes in photoreceptor synapses, second- and even third-order neurons may all contribute to imperfect visual recovery that can occur after successful reattachment.(More)
PURPOSE To study the responses of horizontal cells and rod bipolar cells, the second-order neurons in the retina, to the degeneration induced by experimental retinal detachment. METHODS Retinas from the eyes of domestic cats were examined 1, 3, 7, and 28 days after detachment using immunocytochemical and electron microscopic analyses. Retinal sections(More)
Golgi techniques have been applied to post mortem specimens of human retina. Analysis was possible on 150 human retinas processed and viewed by light microscopy as wholemounts. Camera lucida drawings and photography were used to classify the impregnated neurons into 3 types of horizontal cell, 9 types of bipolar cell, 24 basic types of amacrine cell, a(More)
The retinae of cats were surgically detached for 1/2 hr to 14 months, and the outer nuclear (ONL) and outer plexiform layers (OPL) were studied by light and electron microscopy. The longer the duration or the greater the height of detachment the more likely was the occurrence of cell death. Histologic signs of degeneration were present 1 hr after(More)
The topographical distributions of photoreceptors and ganglion cells of the California ground squirrel (Spermophilus beecheyi) were quantified in a light microscopic study. The central retina contains broad, horizontal streaks of high photoreceptor density (40-44,000/mm2) and high ganglion cell density (20-24,000/mm2). The isodensity contours of both cell(More)
PURPOSE To develop an automated tool that provides reliable, consistent, and accurate results for counting cell nuclei in tissue sections. METHODS We propose a novel method based on an image processing algorithm to analyze large sets of digital micrographs. The nucleus detector design is based on a Laplacian of Gaussian filter. We use the leave-one-out(More)
PURPOSE To characterize the reactions of retinal glial cells (astrocytes and Müller cells) to retinal injury in mice that lack glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and vimentin (GFAP-/-Vim-/-) and to determine the role of glial cells in retinal detachment (RD)-induced photoreceptor degeneration. METHODS RD was induced by subretinal injection of sodium(More)
The organization of the rod spherule and of the horizontal cell axon terminals within the invagination of the rod spherule in the human retina was examined in serial sections by electron microscopy. Twenty-one rod spherules were reconstructed in this study. Axon terminal processes of type I horizontal cells consistently make one or two small punctate(More)