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In 1991, a novel robot, MIT-MANUS, was introduced to study the potential that robots might assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent tool for shoulder and elbow rehabilitation in stroke patients, showing in clinical trials a reduction of impairment in movements confined to the exercised joints. This(More)
—In 1991, a novel robot named MIT-MANUS was introduced as a test bed to study the potential of using robots to assist in and quantify the neuro-rehabilitation of motor function. It introduced a new brand of therapy, offering a highly backdrivable mechanism with a soft and stable feel for the user. MIT-MANUS proved an excellent fit for shoulder and elbow(More)
Understanding the dynamics of wrist rotations is important for many fields, including biomechanics, rehabilitation and motor neuroscience. This paper provides an experimentally based mathematical model of wrist rotation dynamics in Flexion-Extension (FE) and Radial-Ulnar Deviation (RUD), and characterizes the torques required to overcome the passive(More)
The control of wrist rotations is critical for normal upper limb function, yet has received little attention. In this study, we characterized path shape of wrist rotations in order to better understand the biomechanical and neural factors governing their control. Subjects performed step-tracking wrist rotations in eight directions "at a comfortable speed"(More)
Given the vast complexity of human actions and interactions with objects, we proposed that control of sensorimotor behavior may utilize dynamic primitives. However, greater computational simplicity may come at the cost of reduced versatility. Evidence for primitives may be garnered by revealing such limitations. This study tested subjects performing a(More)
Because wrist rotation dynamics are dominated by stiffness (Charles SK, Hogan N. J Biomech 44: 614-621, 2011), understanding how humans plan and execute coordinated wrist rotations requires knowledge of the stiffness characteristics of the wrist joint. In the past, the passive stiffness of the wrist joint has been measured in 1 degree of freedom (DOF).(More)
When humans rotate their wrist in flexion-extension, radial-ulnar deviation, and combinations, the resulting paths (like the path of a laser pointer on a screen) exhibit a distinctive pattern of curvature. In this report we show that the passive stiffness of the wrist is sufficient to account for this pattern. Simulating the dynamics of wrist rotations(More)
Human movement generally involves multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) coordinated in a graceful and seemingly effortless manner even though the underlying dynamics are generally complex. Understanding these dynamics is important because it exposes the challenges that the neuromuscular system faces in controlling movement. Despite the importance of wrist and(More)