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In an attempt to explain how and why some individuals with musculoskeletal pain develop a chronic pain syndrome, Lethem et al. (Lethem J, Slade PD, Troup JDG, Bentley G. Outline of fear-avoidance model of exaggerated pain perceptions. Behav Res Ther 1983; 21: 401-408).ntroduced a so-called 'fear-avoidance' model. The central concept of their model is fear(More)
Research studies focusing on the fear-avoidance model have expanded considerably since the review by Vlaeyen and Linton (Vlaeyen J. W. S. & Linton, S. J. (2000). Fear-avoidance and its consequences in chronic musculoskeletal pain: a state of the art. Pain, 85(3), 317--332). The fear-avoidance model is a cognitive-behavioral account that explains why a(More)
Originally the term "yellow flags" was used to describe psychosocial prognostic factors for the development of disability following the onset of musculoskeletal pain. The identification of yellow flags through early screening was expected to prompt the application of intervention guidelines to achieve secondary prevention. In recent conceptualizations of(More)
OBJECTIVES Because musculoskeletal pain is the second most frequent reason for seeking health care, the aims of this study were to determine the value of psychosocial variables in evaluating risk for developing chronic back pain problems and to develop a screening methodology to identify patients likely to have a poor prognosis. STUDY DESIGN A prospective(More)
BACKGROUND The treatment of chronic low back pain is not primarily focused on removing an underlying organic pathology, but at the reduction of disability through the modification of environmental contingencies and cognitive processes. Behavioural interventions are commonly used in the treatment of chronic (disabling) low back pain. OBJECTIVES The(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the predictive utility of the Orebro Musculoskeletal Pain Screening Questionnaire in identifying patients at risk for developing persistent back pain problems. DESIGN Prospective, where participants completed the questionnaire and their cases were followed for 6 months to assess outcome with regard to pain, function, and absenteeism due(More)
STUDY DESIGN A review of controlled trials. OBJECTIVES To determine which interventions are used to prevent back and neck pain problems as well as what the evidence is for their utility. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA Given the difficulty in successfully treating long-term back and neck pain problems, there has been a call for preventive interventions.(More)
OBJECTIVES The aim of this study was to investigate the one-year development of self-reported sleep problems in workers with no sleep problem at baseline, and to evaluate the role of work stress in the etiology of a new episode. DESIGN A prospective design was employed. METHODS A total of 816 employees with no sleeping problems during the past three(More)
This study aimed to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of background, individual and workplace psychological risk factors to investigated their relationship with spinal pain. Because there is some doubt as to whether the results of cross-sectional findings hold in longitudinal studies, a prospective study was superimposed upon a cross-sectional design of(More)