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OBJECTIVE Reduced capillarization in hemiparetic skeletal muscle of chronic stroke patients can limit insulin, glucose, and oxygen supply to muscle, thereby contributing to impaired glucose metabolism and cardiovascular deconditioning. We hypothesized that compared to sedentary controls, stroke subjects have reduced skeletal muscle capillarization that is(More)
OBJECTIVE People with type 2 diabetes have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic impairments that are linked to obesity and often occur prior to the development of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that obese, older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower ability to shift from fat to carbohydrate oxidation when transitioning from(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6-month aerobic exercise training + weight loss (AEX + WL) on basal and insulin activation of glycogen synthase, basal citrate synthase activity, and Akt and AS160 phosphorylation in older, overweight/obese insulin-resistant men (n = 14; 63 ± 2 years; body mass index, 32 ± kg/m(2)). Muscle samples of(More)
Endurance exercise training can ameliorate many cardiovascular and metabolic disorders and attenuate responses to inflammatory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine response to acute endurance exercise differs between endurance-trained and sedentary young men. Ten endurance-trained and ten(More)
High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of(More)
An etiologic role for chronic inflammation in the development of insulin resistance has been hypothesized. We determined whether the -732A/G and +219G/A C-reactive protein (CRP) gene variants affect insulin and glucose measures and whether these variants affect training-related changes in insulin sensitivity and glucose measures. Men and women 50 to 75(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle capillary rarefaction limits the transcapillary transport of nutrients and oxygen to muscle and may contribute to sarcopenia and functional impairment in older adults. We tested the hypothesis that skeletal muscle capillarization and exercise capacity (VO2max) are lower in sarcopenic than in nonsarcopenic older adults and that the(More)
In its role as an endothelial cell proliferation and migration factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can affect peripheral circulation and therefore impact maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Because of the role of VEGF, and because variation in the VEGF gene has the ability to alter VEGF gene expression and VEGF protein level, we hypothesized(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF1) is a DNA transcription factor composed of two subunits, one of which is regulated by hypoxia (HIF1alpha, encoded by HIF1A). Genes regulated by HIF1 are involved in the processes of angiogenesis, erythropoiesis, and metabolism, making HIF1A a candidate gene in establishing maximal oxygen consumption (VO2 max) before and(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study is to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) gene variants affect baseline and training-induced changes in plasma CRP levels. METHODS AND RESULTS Sixty-three sedentary men and women aged 50 to 75 years old underwent baseline testing (Vomax, body composition, CRP levels). They repeated these tests after 24 weeks of(More)