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OBJECTIVE People with type 2 diabetes have reduced cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic impairments that are linked to obesity and often occur prior to the development of type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that obese, older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have lower ability to shift from fat to carbohydrate oxidation when transitioning from(More)
High-fat meal consumption alters the circulating cytokine profile and contributes to cardiometabolic diseases. A prior bout of exercise can ameliorate the triglyceride response to a high-fat meal, but the interactive effects of exercise and high-fat meals on cytokines that mediate cardiometabolic risk are not fully understood. We investigated the effects of(More)
In its role as an endothelial cell proliferation and migration factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can affect peripheral circulation and therefore impact maximal oxygen consumption (Vo2 max). Because of the role of VEGF, and because variation in the VEGF gene has the ability to alter VEGF gene expression and VEGF protein level, we hypothesized(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal of this study is to determine whether C-reactive protein (CRP) gene variants affect baseline and training-induced changes in plasma CRP levels. METHODS AND RESULTS Sixty-three sedentary men and women aged 50 to 75 years old underwent baseline testing (Vomax, body composition, CRP levels). They repeated these tests after 24 weeks of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Stroke survivors experience disproportionate muscle atrophy and other detrimental tissue composition changes on the paretic side. The purpose was to determine whether myostatin levels are higher in paretic vs nonparetic muscle and the effects of resistive training (RT) on paretic and nonparetic mid-thigh muscle composition and(More)
OBJECTIVE Transcapillary transport of insulin is one determinant of glucose uptake by skeletal muscle; thus, a reduction in capillary density (CD) may worsen insulin sensitivity. Skeletal muscle CD is lower in older adults with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) compared with those with normal glucose tolerance and may be modifiable through aerobic exercise(More)
The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability of and environmental contributions to skeletal muscle phenotypes (appendicular lean mass and calf muscle cross-sectional area) in subjects of African descent and to determine whether heritability estimates are impacted by sex or age. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and(More)
Intramuscular signaling and glucose transport mechanisms contribute to improvements in insulin sensitivity after aerobic exercise training. This study tested the hypothesis that increases in skeletal muscle capillary density (CD) also contribute to exercise-induced improvements in whole-body insulin sensitivity (insulin-stimulated glucose uptake per unit(More)
Older adults with serious mental illness (SMI) are an understudied population with complex care needs and high rates of obesity/overweight. Little is known about the experiences of older adults with SMI with weight management. The present study is an observational study of veterans ages 55 and over with a body mass index in the overweight or obese range,(More)
Endurance exercise training can ameliorate many cardiovascular and metabolic disorders and attenuate responses to inflammatory stimuli. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the angiogenic and pro-inflammatory cytokine response to acute endurance exercise differs between endurance-trained and sedentary young men. Ten endurance-trained and ten(More)