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1. The aim of the study was to determine the ideal ratio of the essential amino acids lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), threonine (Thr), tryptophan (Trp), arginine (Arg), valine (Val) and isoleucine (Ile) and to assess the required dietary lysine concentration for optimum performance in broiler chickens of 2 commercial strains from 20 to 40 d of age. 2. An(More)
BACKGROUND Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which occurs at a disproportionately high rate among Chinese individuals, is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphisms appear to play a role in NPC, because they are essential in the immune response to viruses. We used high-resolution HLA genotyping in a case-control(More)
In histocompatibility testing some genotype ambiguities are almost always resolved into the genotype with the most common alleles. To achieve unambiguous assignments additional unwieldy tests are performed. The American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics formed a committee to define what human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes do not need to(More)
Knowledge of an individual's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotype is essential for modern medical genetics, and is crucial for hematopoietic stem cell and solid-organ transplantation. However, the high levels of polymorphism known for the HLA genes make it difficult to generate an HLA genotype that unambiguously identifies the alleles that are present at(More)
In order to understand the forces governing the evolution of the genetic diversity in the HLA-DP molecule, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods were used to characterize genetic variation at the DPA1 and DPB1 loci encoding this heterodimer on 2,807 chromosomes from 15 different populations including individuals of African, Asian, Amerindian, Indian(More)
This paper presents a meta-analysis of high-resolution human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele frequency data describing 497 population samples. Most of the datasets were compiled from studies published in eight journals from 1990 to 2007; additional datasets came from the International Histocompatibility Workshops and from the AlleleFrequencies.net database.(More)
We have updated the catalogue of common and well-documented (CWD) human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles to reflect current understanding of the prevalence of specific allele sequences. The original CWD catalogue designated 721 alleles at the HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, -DRB3/4/5, -DQA1, -DQB1, and -DPB1 loci in IMGT (IMmunoGeneTics)/HLA Database release 2.15.0 as(More)
Many lines of evidence show that several HLA loci have experienced balancing selection. However, distinguishing among demographic and selective explanations for patterns of variation observed with HLA genes remains a challenge. In this study we address this issue using data from a diverse set of human populations at six classical HLA loci and, employing a(More)
To examine the genetic diversity in west Africa, class I HLA-A and HLA-B alleles of 92 unrelated individuals from two areas in the Cameroon, the capital Yaoundé and the village of Etoa, were identified by direct automated DNA sequencing of exons 2 and 3 of the HLA-B locus alleles and sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) and/or sequencing of the(More)
The genes coding for the main molecules involved in the human immune system--immunoglobulins, human leucocyte antigen (HLA) molecules and killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR)--exhibit a very high level of polymorphism that reveals remarkable frequency variation in human populations. 'Genetic marker' (GM) allotypes located in the constant domains(More)