Steven J. Kridel

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Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases and stroke. However, the mechanism of MMP activation remains unclear. We report that MMP activation involves S-nitrosylation. During cerebral ischemia in vivo, MMP-9 colocalized with neuronal nitric oxide synthase. S-Nitrosylation activated MMP-9 in vitro and(More)
One of the fundamental principles of pharmacology is that most drugs have side effects. Although considerable attention is paid to detrimental side effects, drugs can also have beneficial side effects. Given the time and expense of drug development, it would be particularly exciting if a systematic method could be applied to reveal all of the activities,(More)
Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) play important roles in the normal physiology and in pathological states including inflammation and cancer. While much is known about the biosynthesis and biological activities of eicosanoids derived from ω6 PUFA, our understanding of the corresponding ω3 series lipid mediators is still rudimentary. The purpose of this(More)
UNLABELLED Although it is accepted that the metabolic fate of 1-(11)C-acetate is different in tumors than in myocardial tissue because of different clearance patterns, the exact pathway has not been fully elucidated. For decades, fatty acid synthesis has been quantified in vitro by the incubation of cells with (14)C-acetate. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) has(More)
Variant forms of human antithrombin III with glutamine or threonine substitutions at Lys114, Lys125, Lys133, Lys136, and Lys139 were expressed in insect cells to evaluate their roles in heparin binding and activation. Recombinant native ATIII and all of the variants had very similar second order rate constants for thrombin inhibition in the absence of(More)
The mammary gland is one of the few adult tissues that strongly induce de novo fatty acid synthesis upon physiological stimulation, suggesting that fatty acid is important for milk production during lactation. The committed enzyme to perform this function is fatty acid synthase (FASN). To determine whether de novo fatty acid synthesis is obligatory or(More)
Human fatty acid synthase (FAS) is uniquely expressed at high levels in many tumor types. Pharmacological inhibition of FAS therefore represents an important therapeutic opportunity. The drug Orlistat, which has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, inhibits FAS, induces tumor cell–specific apoptosis and inhibits the growth of prostate tumor(More)
The catalytic clefts of all matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have a similar architecture, raising questions about the redundancy in substrate recognition across the protein family. In the present study, an unbiased phage display strategy was applied to define the substrate recognition profile of MMP-9. Three groups of substrates were identified, each(More)
Protease nexin 1 (PN1) is a serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) that acts as a suicide substrate for thrombin (Th) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA). PN1 forms 1:1 stoichiometric complexes with these proteases, which are then rapidly bound, internalized, and degraded. The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) is the receptor(More)
Hypoxia is a dynamic feature of the tumor microenvironment that contributes to drug resistance and cancer progression. We previously showed that components of the unfolded protein response (UPR), elicited by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, are also activated by hypoxia in vitro and in vivo animal and human patient tumors. Here, we report that ER(More)