Steven J Howe

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X-linked SCID (SCID-X1) is amenable to correction by gene therapy using conventional gammaretroviral vectors. Here, we describe the occurrence of clonal T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) promoted by insertional mutagenesis in a completed gene therapy trial of 10 SCID-X1 patients. Integration of the vector in an antisense orientation 35 kb upstream(More)
BACKGROUND X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is caused by mutations in the common cytokine-receptor gamma chain (gamma(c)), resulting in disruption of development of T lymphocytes and natural-killer cells. B-lymphocyte function is also intrinsically compromised. Allogeneic bone-marrow transplantation is successful if HLA-matched family(More)
Retroviral and lentiviral vector integration into host-cell chromosomes carries with it a finite chance of causing insertional mutagenesis. This risk has been highlighted by the induction of malignancy in mouse models, and development of lymphoproliferative disease in three individuals with severe combined immunodeficiency-X1 (refs. 2,3). Therefore, a key(More)
X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) is caused by mutations in the common cytokine receptor γ chain. These mutations classically lead to complete absence of functional T and natural killer cell lineages as well as to intrinsically compromised B cell function. Although human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched hematopoietic stem cell(More)
Ubiquitously acting chromatin opening elements (UCOEs) consist of methylation-free CpG islands encompassing dual divergently transcribed promoters of housekeeping genes that have been shown to confer resistance to transcriptional silencing and to produce consistent and stable transgene expression in tissue culture systems. To develop improved strategies for(More)
Retroviral vectors have induced subtle clonal skewing in many gene therapy patients and severe clonal proliferation and leukemia in some of them, emphasizing the need for comprehensive integration site analyses to assess the biosafety and genomic pharmacokinetics of vectors and clonal fate of gene-modified cells in vivo. Integration site analyses such as(More)
An ideal gene therapy vector should enable persistent transgene expression without limitations of safety and reproducibility. Here we report the development of a non-viral episomal plasmid DNA (pDNA) vector that appears to fulfil these criteria. This pDNA vector combines a scaffold/matrix attachment region (S/MAR) with a human liver-specific promoter(More)
Recent reports have challenged the notion that retroviruses and retroviral vectors integrate randomly into the host genome. These reports pointed to a strong bias toward integration in and near gene coding regions and, for gammaretroviral vectors, around transcription start sites. Here, we report the results obtained from a large-scale mapping of 572(More)
Non-integrating lentiviral vectors show considerable promise for gene therapy applications as they persist as long-term episomes in non-dividing cells and diminish risks of insertional mutagenesis. In this study, non-integrating lentiviral vectors were evaluated for their use in the adult and fetal central nervous system of rodents. Vectors differentially(More)
Gene therapy for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID-X1) has proven highly effective for long-term restoration of immunity in human subjects. However, the development of lymphoproliferative complications due to dysregulated proto-oncogene expression has underlined the necessity for developing safer vector systems. To reduce the potential for(More)