Steven J. Haase

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Most investigations of unconscious perception use a dissociation design in which an awareness variable (e.g., detection) is compared with a perceptual processing variable (e.g., identification). Unconscious perception is inferred when the awareness variable lacks sensitivity to the stimulus but evidence of perceptual processing is still obtained. In two(More)
The present experiments extend the scope of the independent observation model based on signal detection theory (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991) to complex (word) stimulus sets. In the first experiment, the model predicts the relationship between uncertain detection and subsequent correct identification, thereby providing an alternative interpretation to a(More)
Electrovibration is the tactile sensation of an alternating potential between the human body and a smooth conducing surface when the skin slides over the surface and where the current is too small to stimulate sensory nerves directly. It has been proposed as a high-density tactile display method, for example to display pictographic information to persons(More)
A comparison of auditory and visual perception of scatterplots showed similar correlation estimation performance in both modalities. The present study replicated this experiment using electrotactile (electrocutaneous) presentation of scatterplots on the fingertips and abdomen, as well as visual presentation. The correlation estimation task resulted in a(More)
Elevations in exclusion error rates (i.e., responding with the target stimulus despite instructions to the contrary) in experiments with masked, briefly presented stimuli have been attributed to unconscious perception. The present studies tested the validity of exclusion methods for studying unconscious perception. Experiment 1 replicated Merikle, Joordens,(More)
A common strategy in unconscious perception research is to use either pattern masking or metacontrast masking to render prime stimuli "invisible" to consciousness. However, several recent studies have questioned whether the identities of prime stimuli (typically arrows or diamonds and squares) in metacontrast masking studies are impossible to consciously(More)
The effect of stimulation waveform on pattern perception was investigated on a 49-point fingertip-scanned electrotactile (electrocutaneous) display. Waveform variables burst frequency (F), number of pulses per burst (NPB), and pulse repetition rate (PRR) were varied in a factorial design. Contrast reduction was used to limit performance of perceiving a(More)
In this commentary, we discuss the strengths and limitations of Snodgrass, Bernat, and Shevrin's (2004) theory of unconscious perception. Our commentary centers on the value of signal detection theory (SDT) to understanding the unconscious perception controversy, a value that Snodgrass et al. for the most part agree with (i.e., that most approaches to(More)
Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of stimulation current on pattern perception on a 49-point fingertip-scanned electrotactile (electrocutaneous) display. Performance increased monotonically from near chance levels at the lowest sub-threshold current levels tested to approximately 90% at the highest comfortable current levels. This suggests(More)
The independent observation model (Macmillan & Creelman, 1991) is fitted to detection-identification data collected under conditions of heavy masking. The model accurately predicts a quantitative relationship between stimulus detection and stimulus identification over a wide range of detection performance. This model can also be used to offer a signal(More)