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Cell movement is characterized by anterior-posterior polarization of multiple cell structures. We show here that the plasma membrane is polarized in moving endothelial cells (EC); in particular, plasma membrane microviscosity (PMM) is increased at the cell leading edge. Our studies indicate that cholesterol has an important role in generation of this(More)
Collagen, a molecule consisting of three braided protein helices, is the primary building block of many biological tissues including bone, tendon, cartilage, and skin. Staggered arrays of collagen molecules form fibrils, which arrange into higher-ordered structures such as fibers and fascicles. Because collagen plays a crucial role in determining the(More)
The mechanical response of a biological material to applied forces reflects deformation mechanisms occurring within a hierarchical architecture extending over several distinct length scales. Characterizing and in turn predicting the behaviour of such a material requires an understanding of the mechanical properties of the substructures within the hierarchy,(More)
The inorganic phase of bone is comprised primarily of very small mineralites. The size and shape of these mineralites play fundamental roles in maintaining ionic homeostasis and in the biomechanical function of bone. Using atomic force microscopy, we have obtained direct three-dimensional visual evidence of the size and shape of native protein-free(More)
Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to obtain three-dimensional images of isolated mineralites extracted from young postnatal bovine bone. The mean mineralite size is 9 nm x 6 nm x 2.0 nm, significantly shorter and thicker than the mineralites of mature bovine bone measured by the same technique. Mineralites of the young postnatal bone can be(More)
Understanding the viscoelastic behavior of collagenous tissues with complex hierarchical structures requires knowledge of the properties at each structural level. Whole tissues have been studied extensively, but less is known about the mechanical behavior at the submicron, fibrillar level. Using a microelectromechanical systems platform, in vitro coupled(More)
The three-dimensional tertiary structure of human von Willebrand Factor (vWF) on a hydrophobic surface under aqueous conditions and different shear stress regimes was studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). vWF was imaged by AFM at molecular level resolution under negligible shear stress, under a local applied shear force (7.4 to 19 nN) using the AFM(More)
Hemostasis and thrombosis are highly complex and coordinated interfacial responses to vascular injury. In recent years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to be a very useful approach for studying hemostatic processes under near physiologic conditions. In this report, we review recent progress in the use of AFM for studying hemostatic processes,(More)
Mechanical testing of collagenous tissues at different length scales will provide improved understanding of the mechanical behavior of structures such as skin, tendon, and bone, and also guide the development of multiscale mechanical models. Using a microelectromechanical-systems (MEMS) platform, stress-strain response curves up to failure of type I(More)
Collagen, an essential building block of connective tissues, possesses useful mechanical properties due to its hierarchical structure. However, little is known about the mechanical properties of collagen fibril, an intermediate structure between the collagen molecule and connective tissue. Here, we report the results of systematic molecular dynamics(More)