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Retinal neural transmission represents a key function of the eye. Identifying the molecular components of this vital process is helped by studies of selected human genetic eye disorders. For example, mutations in the calcium channel subunit gene CACNA1F cause incomplete X-linked congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB2 or iCSNB), a human retinal(More)
High-voltage activated Ca channels in tiger salamander cone photoreceptors were studied with nystatin-permeabilized patch recordings in 3 mM Ca2+ and 10 mM Ba2+. The majority of Ca channel current was dihydropyridine sensitive, suggesting a preponderance of L-type Ca channels. However, voltage-dependent, incomplete block (maximum 60%) by nifedipine (0.1-100(More)
Cone photoreceptors were isolated enzymatically and their ionic currents studied by the whole-cell, gigaseal voltage-clamp technique. Five nonsynaptic currents were identified. A prominent, poorly selective cation current, Ih, activated after a delay during hyperpolarizations and then deactivated with a delay on return to potentials greater than -50 mV. An(More)
The activity of calcium-activated chloride channels is controlled through the complex interaction of cellular mechanisms affecting calcium entry, buffering, and extrusion, and an unknown stoichiometric relation between intracellular Ca concentration and Cl channel activation. Here, we show that calcium-activated chloride current [ICl(Ca)] in cone(More)
In the rd1 mouse model for retinal degeneration, the loss of photoreceptors results in oscillatory activity (∼10–20 Hz) within the remnant electrically coupled network of retinal ON cone bipolar and AII amacrine cells. We tested the role of hyperpolarization-activated currents (I(h)), voltage-gated Na(+) channels and gap junctions in mediating such(More)
Synaptic transmission of the light response from photoreceptors to second-order cells of the retina was studied with the whole-cell patch-clamp technique in tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) retinal slices. Synaptic strength is modulated by extracellular pH in a striking manner: Light-sensitive postsynaptic currents in horizontal and bipolar cells were(More)
The authors showed that conditional effects of the stimulation environment modulate both the ictal and interictal behaviors of rats subjected to amygdala kindling. Rats received 53 stimulations to the left basolateral amygdala in 1 conditional stimulus (CS) context (CS+) and 53 sham stimulations (the stimulation lead was attached but no current was(More)
Depolarization-induced facilitation of L-type Ca channels in rod photoreceptors was investigated with nystatin-perforated and ruptured whole cell patch-clamp techniques in cells isolated from tiger salamander retina. Induction of facilitation was voltage dependent with a half-maximal effect seen at prepulse potentials near +31 mV. Reversal of facilitation(More)
We show that carbenoxolone, a drug used to block hemichannels in the retina to test the ephaptic model of horizontal cell inhibitory feedback, has strong inhibitory effects on voltage-gated Ca channels. Carbenoxolone (100 microM) reduced photoreceptor-to-horizontal cell synaptic transmission by 92%. Applied to patch-clamped, isolated cone photoreceptors,(More)
Presynaptic Ca2+ channels mediate early stages of visual information processing in photoreceptors by facilitating the release of neurotransmitter and by receiving modulatory input that alters transmission. Two types of L-type Ca2+ channels, composed of alpha1F and alpha1D subunits and having similar biophysical andpharmacological properties, appear to form(More)