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Methods for alignment of protein sequences typically measure similarity by using a substitution matrix with scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another. The most widely used matrices are based on the Dayhoff model of evolutionary rates. Using a different approach, we have derived substitution matrices from about 2000 blocks of aligned(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize(More)
The effect of genetic mutation on phenotype is of significant interest in genetics. The type of genetic mutation that causes a single amino acid substitution (AAS) in a protein sequence is called a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP). An nsSNP could potentially affect the function of the protein, subsequently altering the carrier's(More)
MOTIVATION As databanks grow, sequence classification and prediction of function by searching protein family databases becomes increasingly valuable. The original Blocks Database, which contains ungapped multiple alignments for families documented in Prosite, can be searched to classify new sequences. However, Prosite is incomplete, and families from other(More)
With the completion of genome sequencing projects, emphasis in genomics has shifted from analyzing sequences to understanding gene function, and effective reverse genetic strategies are increasingly in demand. Here we report adaptations of the targeting induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) reverse genetic strategy (McCallum et al., 2000a) to make it(More)
Cellular memory is maintained at homeotic genes by cis-regulatory elements whose mechanism of action is unknown. We have examined chromatin at Drosophila homeotic gene clusters by measuring, at high resolution, levels of histone replacement and nucleosome occupancy. Homeotic gene clusters display conspicuous peaks of histone replacement at boundaries of(More)
Centromeric H3-like histones, which replace histone H3 in the centromeric chromatin of animals and fungi, have not been reported in plants. We identified a histone H3 variant from Arabidopsis thaliana that encodes a centromere-identifying protein designated HTR12. By immunological detection, HTR12 localized at centromeres in both mitotic and meiotic cells.(More)
Each column of amino acids in a multiple alignment of protein sequences can be represented as a vector of 20 amino acid counts. For alignment and searching applications, the count vector is an imperfect representation of a position, because the observed sequences are an incomplete sample of the full set of related sequences. One general solution to this(More)
We systematically generated large-scale data sets to improve genome annotation for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a key model organism. These data sets include transcriptome profiling across a developmental time course, genome-wide identification of transcription factor-binding sites, and maps of chromatin organization. From this, we created more(More)
We describe a new primer design strategy for PCR amplification of unknown targets that are related to multiply-aligned protein sequences. Each primer consists of a short 3' degenerate core region and a longer 5' consensus clamp region. Only 3-4 highly conserved amino acid residues are necessary for design of the core, which is stabilized by the clamp during(More)