Steven Henikoff

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Methods for alignment of protein sequences typically measure similarity by using a substitution matrix with scores for all possible exchanges of one amino acid with another. The most widely used matrices are based on the Dayhoff model of evolutionary rates. Using a different approach, we have derived substitution matrices from about 2000 blocks of aligned(More)
The effect of genetic mutation on phenotype is of significant interest in genetics. The type of genetic mutation that causes a single amino acid substitution (AAS) in a protein sequence is called a non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP). An nsSNP could potentially affect the function of the protein, subsequently altering the carrier's(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) studies and random mutagenesis projects identify amino acid substitutions in protein-coding regions. Each substitution has the potential to affect protein function. SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) is a program that predicts whether an amino acid substitution affects protein function so that users can prioritize(More)
Many missense substitutions are identified in single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data and large-scale random mutagenesis projects. Each amino acid substitution potentially affects protein function. We have constructed a tool that uses sequence homology to predict whether a substitution affects protein function. SIFT, which sorts intolerant from tolerant(More)
Cytosine methylation, a common form of DNA modification that antagonizes transcription, is found at transposons and repeats in vertebrates, plants and fungi. Here we have mapped DNA methylation in the entire Arabidopsis thaliana genome at high resolution. DNA methylation covers transposons and is present within a large fraction of A. thaliana genes.(More)
Every eukaryotic chromosome has a centromere, the locus responsible for poleward movement at mitosis and meiosis. Although conventional loci are specified by their DNA sequences, current evidence favors a chromatin-based inheritance mechanism for centromeres. The chromosome segregation machinery is highly conserved across all eukaryotes, but the DNA and(More)
A method is described for the rapid generation and cloning of deletion derivatives well-suited for the sequencing of long stretches of DNA. This method is based on two useful features of exonuclease III: (1) processive digestion at a very uniform rate and (2) failure to initiate digestion at DNA ends with four-base 3'-protrusions. The method was applied to(More)
One of the most important breakthroughs in the history of genetics was the discovery that mutations can be induced (Muller, 1930; Stadler, 1932). The high frequency with which ionizing radiation and certain chemicals can cause genes to mutate made it possible to perform genetic studies that were not feasible when only spontaneous mutations were available.(More)
Chemical mutagenesis has been the workhorse of traditional genetics, but it has not been possible to determine underlying rates or distributions of mutations from phenotypic screens. However, reverse-genetic screens can be used to provide an unbiased ascertainment of mutation statistics. Here we report a comprehensive analysis of approximately 1900 ethyl(More)
A major interest in human genetics is to determine whether a nonsynonymous single-base nucleotide polymorphism (nsSNP) in a gene affects its protein product and, consequently, impacts the carrier's health. We used the SIFT (Sorting Intolerant From Tolerant) program to predict that 25% of 3084 nsSNPs from dbSNP, a public SNP database, would affect protein(More)