Steven H Sacks

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Previous work has indicated that complement is a mediator of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. To investigate the components of complement responsible for this effect, we examined a model of renal I/R injury in C3-, C4-, C5-, and C6-deficient mice. We occluded the renal arteries and veins (40-58 minutes) and, after reperfusion (0-72 hours), assessed renal(More)
Regulation of T cell immunity by C5a has been suggested from recent studies. However, the underlying mechanisms, particularly the involved cells and biochemical basis, are not well defined. In this study, the direct modulation of dendritic cell (DC) activation and its function in T cell stimulation by C5a-C5aR interaction and the involved signaling pathways(More)
OBJECTIVE Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma (SNUC) and sinonasal neuroendocrine carcinoma (SNEC) are relatively newly recognized, rare entities requiring further clinicopathological analysis to advance our understanding and determine prognostic distinctions between them. STUDY DESIGN Retrospective chart review. METHODS Cases were retrieved from the(More)
Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immunity interacts with the adaptive immune system to identify potentially harmful antigens and eliminate them from the host. A central facet of innate immunity is complement, which for some time has been recognized as a contributor to inflammation in transplant rejection but without detailed analysis of its role(More)
Tubulointerstitial inflammation and progressive fibrosis are common pathways that lead to kidney failure in proteinuric nephropathies. Activation of the complement system has been implicated in the development of tubulointerstitial injury in clinical and animal studies, but the mechanism by which complement induces kidney injury is not fully understood.(More)
Impaired T-cell reactivity is a feature of C3-deficient mice in several disease models. The mechanism behind the reduced T-cell response is, however, poorly understood. We explored the hypothesis that antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from C3-/- mice have impaired potency to stimulate antigen-specific T cells, in an alloantigen-dependent model. Our results(More)
Homeostatic proliferation is a normal physiological process triggered by lymphopenia to maintain a constant level of T cells. It becomes the predominant source of new T cells in adulthood after thymus regression. T cells that have undergone homeostatic proliferation acquire the memory phenotype, cause autoimmune disease, and are resistant to tolerance(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are important molecules involved in the activation of innate and subsequent development of adaptive immunity. TLRs are ligated by exogenous ligands from pathogens and by endogenous ligands released in inflammatory diseases. Activation of TLR leads to activation of NF-κB and release of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-6 and(More)
Infection of the urinary tract remains one of the most common infections affecting mankind. Renal epithelial cells, being one of the first cells to come into contact with invading organisms, are in a key position to coordinate host defense. The epithelium not only provides a physical barrier to infection, but can also augment the immune response via the(More)