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Arousal and anxiety are behavioral responses that involve complex neurocircuitries and multiple neurochemical components. Here, we report that a neuropeptide, neuropeptide S (NPS), potently modulates wakefulness and could also regulate anxiety. NPS acts by activating its cognate receptor (NPSR) and inducing mobilization of intracellular Ca2+. The NPSR mRNA(More)
Increased bandwidth in the Internet puts great demands on network routers; for example, to route minimum sized Gigabit Ethernet packets, an IP router must process about packets per second per port. Using the “rule-of-thumb” that it takes roughly 1000 packets per second for every 106 bits per second of line rate, an OC-192 line requires routing lookups per(More)
Type II CRISPR immune systems in bacteria use a dual RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to cleave foreign DNA at specific sites. We show here that Cas9 assembles with hybrid guide RNAs in human cells and can induce the formation of double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs) at a site complementary to the guide RNA sequence in genomic DNA. This cleavage activity(More)
Type II CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems use an RNA-guided DNA endonuclease, Cas9, to generate double-strand breaks in invasive DNA during an adaptive bacterial immune response. Cas9 has been harnessed as a powerful tool for genome editing and gene regulation in many eukaryotic organisms. We(More)
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a robust genome editing technology that works in human cells, animals and plants based on the RNA-programmed DNA cleaving activity of the Cas9 enzyme. Building on previous work (Jinek et al., 2013), we show here that new genetic information can be introduced site-specifically and with high efficiency by homology-directed repair(More)
Recently there has been much interest in combining the speed of layer-2 switching with the features of layer-3 routing. This has been prompted by numerous proposals, including: IP Switching [1], Tag Switching [2], ARIS [3], CSR [4], and IP over ATM [5]. In this paper, we study IP Switching and evaluate the performance claims made by Newman et al in [1] and(More)
Exploitation of custom-designed nucleases to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) at genomic locations of choice has transformed our ability to edit genomes, regardless of their complexity. DSBs can trigger either error-prone repair pathways that induce random mutations at the break sites or precise homology-directed repair pathways that generate specific(More)
Orphan G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are cloned proteins with structural characteristics common to the GPCRs but that bind unidentified ligands. Orphan GPCRs have been used as targets to identify novel transmitter molecules. Here we describe the isolation from brain extracts and the characterization of the natural ligand of a particular orphan GPCR(More)
The RNA-programmable Cas9 endonuclease cleaves double-stranded DNA at sites complementary to a 20-base-pair guide RNA. The Cas9 system has been used to modify genomes in multiple cells and organisms, demonstrating its potential as a facile genome-engineering tool. We used in vitro selection and high-throughput sequencing to determine the propensity of eight(More)