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We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of(More)
Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and full-length (FL)cDNAs from species of spruce (Picea spp.) revealed a family of 35 unique dirigent proteins (DIR) and DIR-like proteins. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the spruce DIR and DIR-like genes cluster into three distinct subfamilies, DIR-a, DIR-b/d, and DIR-f, of a larger plant DIR and DIR-like gene(More)
BACKGROUND Many drugs of natural origin are hydrophobic and can pass through cell membranes. Hydrophobic molecules must be susceptible to active efflux systems if they are to be maintained at lower concentrations in cells than in their environment. Multi-drug resistance (MDR), often mediated by intrinsic membrane proteins that couple energy to drug efflux,(More)
The outer stem tissues of conifers provide a durable constitutive and inducible defense barrier consisting of suberized or lignified periderm, sclereids, a network of terpenoid-filled resin ducts, and phenolic phloem parenchyma cells. Microarray gene expression profiling of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis) bark attacked by stem-boring weevils (Pissodes(More)
Studying lignin-biosynthetic-pathway mutants and transgenics provides insights into plant responses to perturbations of the lignification system, and enhances our understanding of normal lignification. When enzymes late in the pathway are downregulated, significant changes in the composition and structure of lignin may result. NMR spectroscopy provides(More)
Cold acclimation in conifers is a complex process, the timing and extent of which reflects local adaptation and varies widely along latitudinal gradients for many temperate and boreal tree species. Despite their ecological and economic importance, little is known about the global changes in gene expression that accompany autumn cold acclimation in conifers.(More)
• Poplar has been established as a model tree system for genomic research of the response to biotic stresses. This study describes a series of induced transcriptome changes and the associated physiological characterization of local and systemic responses in hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa × deltoides) after simulated herbivory. • Responses were measured(More)
As part of a genomics strategy to characterize inducible defences against insect herbivory in poplar, we developed a comprehensive suite of functional genomics resources including cDNA libraries, expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and a cDNA microarray platform. These resources are designed to complement the existing poplar genome sequence and poplar (Populus(More)
The transcriptional response of hybrid poplar (Populus trichocarpa x P. deltoides) to poplar leaf rust (Melampsora medusae) infection was studied using the Populus 15.5K cDNA microarray. Pronounced changes in the transcriptome were observed, with approximately 20% of genes on the array showing either induction or repression of transcription within the 9-day(More)
Traditionally, simple sequence repeat (SSR)markers have been developed from libraries of genomic DNA. However, the large, repetitive nature of conifer genomes makes development of robust, single-copy SSR markers from genomic DNA difficult. Expressed sequence tags (ESTs), or sequences of messenger RNA, offer the opportunity to exploit single, low-copy,(More)