Steven G. Widen

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Human T cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) is the etiological agent for adult T cell leukemia (ATL). The HTLV-I trans-activator protein Tax can activate the expression of its own long terminal repeat (LTR) and many cellular and viral genes. Tax down-regulated the expression of human beta-polymerase (hu beta-pol), a cellular enzyme involved in host cell DNA(More)
RNA viruses exhibit substantial structural, ecological and genomic diversity. However, genome size in RNA viruses is likely limited by a high mutation rate, resulting in the evolution of various mechanisms to increase complexity while minimising genome expansion. Here we conduct a large-scale analysis of the genome sequences of 99 animal rhabdoviruses,(More)
During 2010 and 2011, the Loreto region of Peru experienced a dengue outbreak of unprecedented magnitude and severity for the region. This outbreak coincided with the reappearance of dengue virus-2 (DENV-2) in Loreto after almost 8 years. Whole-genome sequence indicated that DENV-2 from the outbreak belonged to lineage II of the southeast Asian/American(More)
Malpais Spring virus (MSPV) is a mosquito-borne rhabdovirus that infects a variety of wild and feral ungulates in New Mexico, including horses and deer. Although, initial serologic tests and electron microscopy at the time of isolation nearly 25 years ago provided evidence that MSPV is a novel virus, possibly related to vesiculoviruses, the virus still has(More)
The family Mesoniviridae (order Nidovirales) comprises of a group of positive-sense, single-stranded RNA ([+]ssRNA) viruses isolated from mosquitoes. Thirteen novel insect-specific virus isolates were obtained from mosquitoes collected in Indonesia, Thailand and the USA. By electron microscopy, the virions appeared as spherical particles with a diameter of(More)
Our genetic analyses of uncharacterized bunyaviruses isolated in Peru identified a possible reassortant virus containing small and large gene segment sequences closely related to the Caraparu virus and a medium gene segment sequence potentially derived from an unidentified group C orthobunyavirus. Neutralization tests confirmed serologic distinction among(More)
The majority of the colon cancers analyzed to-date express insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-4, and antisense inhibition of IGFBP-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) confers a growth advantage to the cells in response to endogenous and exogenous IGFs. We recently reported a significant up-regulation of IGFBP-4 expression in a human colon cancer cell(More)
Local transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was first documented in Trinidad and Tobago (T&T) in July 2014 preceding a large epidemic. At initial presentation, it is difficult to distinguish chikungunya fever (CHIKF) from other acute undifferentiated febrile illnesses (AUFIs), including life-threatening dengue disease. We characterised and compared(More)
Mosquito borne pathogens are transmitted to humans via saliva during blood feeding. Mosquito saliva is a complex concoction of many secretory factors that modulate the feeding foci to enhance pathogen infection and establishment. Multiple salivary proteins/factors have been identified/characterized that enhance pathogen infection. Here, we describe, for the(More)
The airway epithelial cell plays a central role in coordinating the pulmonary response to injury and inflammation. Here, transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) activates gene expression programs to induce stem cell-like properties, inhibit expression of differentiated epithelial adhesion proteins and express mesenchymal contractile proteins. This process is(More)