Steven G. Shimada

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The standard rodent model of itch uses scratching with the hind limb as a behavioral response to pruritic stimuli applied to the nape of the neck. The assumption is that scratching is an indicator of the sensation of itch. But because only one type of site-directed behavior is available, one cannot be certain that scratching is not a response to nociceptive(More)
We examined whether the proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) agonist, H-Ser-Leu-Ile-Gly-Arg-Leu-NH2 (SLIGRL-NH2), could induce scratching behavior in mice. Intradermal injections of SLIGRL-NH2 (10-50 microg) evoked dose dependent scratching. This behavior peaked near 5 min and returned to preinjection levels within 30 min. Pretreatment of animals with a(More)
In psychophysical experiments, humans use different verbal responses to pruritic and algesic chemical stimuli to indicate the different qualities of sensation they feel. A major challenge for behavioural models in the mouse of chemical itch and pain in humans is to devise experimental protocols that provide the opportunity for the animal to exhibit a(More)
Itch evoked by cowhage or histamine is reduced or blocked by capsaicin desensitization, suggesting that pruriceptive neurons are capsaicin-sensitive. Topical capsaicin can evoke both nociceptive sensations and itch, whereas intradermal injection of capsaicin evokes only burning pain. To dissociate the pruritic and nociceptive sensory effects caused by the(More)
1. We investigated whether afferent nerves are involved in the development of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) responses induced either by systemic administration of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and prostaglandin E2, or by psychological stress. The capsaicin desensitization method was used to impair afferent C fibres and we compared the ACTH responses(More)
role of PAX3 expression in non-malignant differentiated melanocytes is now required. Extensive PAX3 expression in benign and malignant tissues of the melanocyte lineage, and absence of expression in other types of skin cancer, nevertheless suggests that PAX3 could be used as an immunohistochemical marker to differentially diagnose melanoma. Ethics approval(More)
Although the trichomes (spicules) of a pod of cowhage (Mucuna pruriens) are known to evoke a histamine-independent itch that is mediated by a cysteine protease, little is known of the itch and accompanying nociceptive sensations evoked by a single spicule and the enhanced itch and pain that can occur in the surrounding skin. The tip of a single spicule(More)
A punctate, cutaneous application of capsaicin or histamine by means of a cowhage spicule elicits itch accompanied by pricking/stinging, burning, and typically, one or more areas of dysesthesia (alloknesis, hyperalgesia, hyperknesis). When applied over a wider and deeper area of skin by means of intradermal injection, histamine evokes the same sensory(More)
Rats injected with a lipopolysaccharide endotoxin produce detectable concentrations of nitric oxide gas (NO) in the expired air within 60 min. The concentration of NO reaches a plateau at 3 h. Production of the NO is dose dependent on lipopolysaccharide, and at a dose of 1 mg/kg i.v., lipopolysaccharide alveolar concentrations of > 260 parts per billion are(More)
Persistent itch is a common symptom of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) and represents a significant health burden. The chemokine CXCL10 is predominantly produced by epithelial cells during ACD. Although the chemokine CXCL10 and its receptor CXCR3 are implicated in the pathophysiology of ACD, it is largely unexplored for itch and pain accompanying this(More)