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BACKGROUND In the Step Study, the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine did not reduce plasma viraemia after infection, and HIV-1 incidence was higher in vaccine-treated than in placebo-treated men with pre-existing adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) immunity. We assessed vaccine-induced immunity and its potential contributions to infection risk. METHODS To assess(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive evidence from observational studies suggests a role for genital herpes in the HIV epidemic. A number of herpes vaccines are under development and several trials of the efficacy of HSV-2 treatment with acyclovir in reducing HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression have just reported their results or will report their(More)
Heritabilities of 11 quasi-continuous skeletal traits were estimated in randombred house mice of three separate ages (1, 3, and 5 months). Three separate methods--regression, maximum likelihood correlation, and Falconer's Method--were used to obtain heritabilities for each of the separate age groups. Significant differences in the incidences of seven of the(More)
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been increasingly utilized to investigate somatic genetic abnormalities in premalignancy and cancer. LOH is a common alteration observed during cancer development, and SNP assays have been used to identify LOH at specific chromosomal regions. The design of such studies requires consideration of the resolution for(More)
BACKGROUND An objective of the first efficacy trial of a candidate vaccine containing recombinant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 envelope glycoprotein 120 (rgp120) antigens was to assess correlations between antibody responses to rgp120 and the incidence of HIV-1 infection. METHODS Within the randomized trial (for vaccinees, n=3598; for placebo(More)
Newborns and young infants suffer increased infectious morbidity and mortality as compared to older children and adults. Morbidity and mortality due to infection are highest during the first weeks of life, decreasing over several years. Furthermore, most vaccines are not administered around birth, but over the first few years of life. A more complete(More)
UNLABELLED T cell directed HIV vaccines are based upon the induction of CD8+ T cell memory responses that would be effective in inhibiting infection and subsequent replication of an infecting HIV-1 strain, a process that requires a match or near-match between the epitope induced by vaccination and the infecting viral strain. We compared the frequency and(More)
workshop at which nonhuman primate (NHP) researchers and clinical trial scientists with HIV vaccine research expertise discussed how to more effectively use NHPs for evaluating HIV-1 vaccine candidates. This workshop precipitated a broad discussion on what types of NHP studies should be targeted in the critical preclinical pathway for HIV-1 vaccine(More)