Steven G. Self

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Characterization of the immune responses induced in the initial stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is of critical importance for an understanding of early viral pathogenesis and prophylactic vaccine design. Here, we used sequential plasma samples collected during the eclipse and exponential viral expansion phases from subjects(More)
BACKGROUND In the Step Study, the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine did not reduce plasma viraemia after infection, and HIV-1 incidence was higher in vaccine-treated than in placebo-treated men with pre-existing adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) immunity. We assessed vaccine-induced immunity and its potential contributions to infection risk. METHODS To assess(More)
BACKGROUND Extensive evidence from observational studies suggests a role for genital herpes in the HIV epidemic. A number of herpes vaccines are under development and several trials of the efficacy of HSV-2 treatment with acyclovir in reducing HIV acquisition, transmission, and disease progression have just reported their results or will report their(More)
Naturally arising CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (TR) play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. TCR specificity is thought to play a critical role in TR development and function, but the repertoire and specificity of TR TCRs remain largely unknown. We find by sequencing of TRAV14 (Valpha2) TCRalpha chains associated with a transgenic TCRbeta(More)
The human neonate and infant are unduly susceptible to infection with a wide variety of microbes. This susceptibility is thought to reflect differences from adults in innate and adaptive immunity, but the nature of these differences is incompletely characterized. The innate immune response directs the subsequent adaptive immune response after integrating(More)
During primary infection, the number of HIV-1 particles in plasma increases rapidly, reaches a peak, and then declines until it reaches a set point level. Understanding the kinetics of primary infection, and its effect on the establishment of chronic infection, is important in defining the early pathogenesis of HIV. We studied the viral dynamics of very(More)
BACKGROUND Among women who practice breast self-examination (BSE), breast cancers may be detected when they are at an earlier stage and are smaller than in women who do not practice BSE. However, the efficacy of breast self-examination for decreasing breast cancer mortality is unproven. This study was conducted to determine whether an intensive program of(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess: (1) the risk of breast cancer associated with use of ovulation-inducing agents (such as clomiphene citrate) as treatment for infertility; and (2) the risk associated with ovulatory abnormalities that result in infertility. We performed a case-cohort study among 3837 women evaluated for infertility at clinics in(More)
BACKGROUND Case reports and the results of a recent case-control study have raised questions about the potential neoplastic effects of medications used as treatment for infertility. METHODS We examined the risk of ovarian tumors in a cohort of 3837 women evaluated for infertility between 1974 and 1985 in Seattle. Computer linkage with a population-based(More)