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BACKGROUND Case reports and the results of a recent case-control study have raised questions about the potential neoplastic effects of medications used as treatment for infertility. METHODS We examined the risk of ovarian tumors in a cohort of 3837 women evaluated for infertility between 1974 and 1985 in Seattle. Computer linkage with a population-based(More)
Naturally arising CD25+ CD4+ regulatory T cells (TR) play an important role in the prevention of autoimmunity. TCR specificity is thought to play a critical role in TR development and function, but the repertoire and specificity of TR TCRs remain largely unknown. We find by sequencing of TRAV14 (Valpha2) TCRalpha chains associated with a transgenic TCRbeta(More)
The purpose of this study was to assess: (1) the risk of breast cancer associated with use of ovulation-inducing agents (such as clomiphene citrate) as treatment for infertility; and (2) the risk associated with ovulatory abnormalities that result in infertility. We performed a case-cohort study among 3837 women evaluated for infertility at clinics in(More)
The authors used data from a population-based case-control study of breast cancer in women aged < or = 44 years (cases, n = 975; controls, n = 866) conducted between 1994 and 1996 in three counties of western Washington state to assess the validity and reliability of reported perinatal factors. For a sample of participants, exposure information from(More)
BACKGROUND Among women who practice breast self-examination (BSE), breast cancers may be detected when they are at an earlier stage and are smaller than in women who do not practice BSE. However, the efficacy of breast self-examination for decreasing breast cancer mortality is unproven. This study was conducted to determine whether an intensive program of(More)
BACKGROUND In the Step Study, the MRKAd5 HIV-1 gag/pol/nef vaccine did not reduce plasma viraemia after infection, and HIV-1 incidence was higher in vaccine-treated than in placebo-treated men with pre-existing adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) immunity. We assessed vaccine-induced immunity and its potential contributions to infection risk. METHODS To assess(More)
Identification of differentially expressed genes and clustering of genes are two important and complementary objectives addressed with gene expression data. For the differential expression question, many "per-gene" analytic methods have been proposed. These methods can generally be characterized as using a regression function to independently model the(More)
Characterization of the immune responses induced in the initial stages of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is of critical importance for an understanding of early viral pathogenesis and prophylactic vaccine design. Here, we used sequential plasma samples collected during the eclipse and exponential viral expansion phases from subjects(More)
The human neonate and infant are unduly susceptible to infection with a wide variety of microbes. This susceptibility is thought to reflect differences from adults in innate and adaptive immunity, but the nature of these differences is incompletely characterized. The innate immune response directs the subsequent adaptive immune response after integrating(More)