Steven G Reed

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CD4+ T cells have a crucial role in mediating protection against a variety of pathogens through production of specific cytokines. However, substantial heterogeneity in CD4+ T-cell cytokine responses has limited the ability to define an immune correlate of protection after vaccination. Here, using multiparameter flow cytometry to assess the immune responses(More)
BACKGROUND A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires demonstration of the parasite in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy samples. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of non-invasive testing for antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39 by means of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted(More)
Over the last decade, there has been a flurry of research on adjuvants for vaccines, and several novel adjuvants are now in licensed products or in late stage clinical development. The success of adjuvants in enhancing the immune response to recombinant antigens has led many researchers to re-focus their vaccine development programs. Successful vaccine(More)
We have found that an important Th2 cytokine, IL-10, is produced by tissues from patients acutely infected with Leishmania donovani. In all individuals tested, IL-10 mRNA production was increased in lymph nodes taken during acute disease over that observed in postacute samples. In contrast, both pre- and posttreatment lymph nodes had readily detected mRNA(More)
During an epidemiological study of visceral leishmaniasis in an endemic region of Brazil, new perspectives emerged on a subclinical form of the disease. A group of 86 children with antibody to Leishmania were identified. None of these children had a history of leishmaniasis. The children were segregated into four groups: One group remained asymptomatic (n =(More)
The diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a serious and often fatal parasitic disease caused by members of the Leishmania donovani complex, remains problematic. Current methods rely on clinical criteria, parasite identification in aspirate material, and serology. The latter methods use crude antigen preparations lacking in specificity. A previously(More)
Despite the widespread use of the childhood vaccine against tuberculosis (TB), Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), the disease remains a serious global health problem. A successful vaccine against TB that replaces or boosts BCG would include antigens that induce or recall the appropriate T cell responses. Four Mycobacterium tuberculosis(More)
Studies were undertaken to determine whether interleukin 10, (IL-10) a cytokine shown to inhibit interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) production, was involved in Trypanosoma cruzi infections in mice. Exogenous IFN-gamma protects mice from fatal infection with T. cruzi. Furthermore, resistant B6D2 mice developed fatal T. cruzi infections when treated with(More)
Several species of Leishmania cause human diseases that range from self-healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral leishmaniasis, mucosal leishmaniasis and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Drug resistance and toxicities associated with chemotherapy emphasize the need for a safe, effective vaccine. Studies of the immunopathogenesis and mechanisms of(More)
The course of human infection with Leishmania braziliensis is variable, ranging from self-healing infection to chronic disease. It is therefore a useful system in which to study immunoregulatory aspects of leishmaniasis, including the effects of parasite antigens on host responses. In the present study, we report on the cloning of, expression of, and(More)