Steven G. Pavlakis

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We report on two patients who have a mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and recurrent cerebral insults that resemble strokes (MELAS). These two and nine other reported patients share the following features: ragged red fibers evident on muscle biopsy, normal early development, short stature, seizures, and hemiparesis, hemianopia, or(More)
Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes (MELAS) syndrome is one of many mitochondrially inherited multisystem diseases. The features of 110 reported mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and strokelike episodes patients are reviewed to define the clinical spectrum of this disease. The clinical disorder, in(More)
BACKGROUND Recent evidence suggests that dopamine (DA) agonist-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition (PPI) depends on basal PPI values, in a manner that suggests an inverted U-shaped relationship between PPI and prefrontal DA levels. This is the first study to examine possible genetic determinants of PPI and the catechol O-methyltransferase (COMT)(More)
A boy presented with hypertension, seizures, lethargy, headache, and occipital blindness. He improved with antihypertensive therapy. Other reported children with a similar distinctive clinical condition are compared with adults with a syndrome termed reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy. Because both gray and white matter are involved, we suggest that(More)
Traumatic brain injury is an insult to the brain caused by an external force that results in an impairment (transient or permanent) of cognitive, behavioral, emotional, or physical function. Traumatic brain injury encompasses shearing injury, which might be seen in a shaken infant, as well as penetrating injury from a foreign body, such as a bullet. This(More)
Andersen's syndrome is a clinically distinct form of potassium-sensitive periodic paralysis associated with cardiac dysrhythmias. The subtle nature of the cardiac and dysmorphic features may delay the recognition of this syndrome and its potentially lethal cardiac dysrhythmias. The genetic defect in Andersen's syndrome is not genetically linked to other(More)
A 3 1/2-year-old boy developed partial complex seizures with right-sided motor activity, occasionally secondarily generalized at age 18 months. Initial EEG showed left-sided focal epileptiform discharges. Seizures became refractory to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). At age 3 years, there was severe language deterioration consistent with Landau-Kleffner syndrome(More)
Children with hypertension, seizures, lethargy, encephalopathy, headache, and occipital blindness are reviewed. After undergoing antihypertensive therapy, most children improve. Some patients have a similar syndrome associated with chemotherapy, transplantation, transfusion, or human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection. These latter children can(More)
We describe the full history and postmortem findings in one of the first identified cases of mitochondrial encephalomyopathy with stroke-like episodes (MELAS). To clarify diagnostic criteria, we analyzed 69 reported cases. The syndrome should be suspected by the following three invariant criteria: (1) stroke-like episode before age 40 yr; (2) encephalopathy(More)
Twenty-five children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent cranial magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on clinical parameters: encephalopathy and nonencephalopathy. N-acetyl aspartate/creatine ratios were compared between the 2 groups and to control data. Spectra(More)