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The macrocyclic polyketides FK506, FK520, and rapamycin are potent immunosuppressants that prevent T-cell proliferation through initial binding to the immunophilin FKBP12. Analogs of these molecules are of considerable interest as therapeutics in both metastatic and inflammatory disease. For these polyketides the starter unit for chain assembly is(More)
Sequence comparisons of multiple acyltransferase (AT) domains from modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) have highlighted a correlation between a short sequence motif and the nature of the extender unit selected. When this motif was specifically altered in the bimodular model PKS DEBS1-TE of Saccharopolyspora erythraea, the products included triketide(More)
Ivermectin, a mixture of 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1a9 with minor amounts of 22,23-dihydroavermectin B1b 10, is one of the most successful veterinary antiparasitic drugs ever produced. In humans, ivermectin has been used for the treatment of African river blindness (onchocerciasis) resulting in an encouraging decrease in the prevalence of skin and eye(More)
The biosynthesis of the polyketide antibiotic actinorhodin by Streptomyces coelicolor involves the oxidative dimerization and hydroxylation of a precursor, most likely dihydrokalafungin, as the final steps in its formation. Mutations in the actVB gene block these last steps, and the mutants secrete kalafungin as a shunt product. To investigate the role of(More)
ActVA-Orf6 monooxygenase from Streptomyces coelicolor that catalyses the oxidation of an aromatic intermediate of the actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway is a member of a class of small monooxygenases that carry out oxygenation without the assistance of any of the prosthetic groups, metal ions or cofactors normally associated with activation of molecular(More)
Cytochrome P450s are heme-containing proteins that catalyze the oxidative metabolism of many physiological endogenous compounds. Because of their unique oxygen chemistry and their key role in drug and xenobiotic metabolism, particular attention has been devoted in elucidating their mechanism of substrate recognition. In this work, we analyzed the(More)
The biosynthesis of complex reduced polyketides is catalysed in actinomycetes by large multifunctional enzymes, the modular Type I polyketide synthases (PKSs). Most of our current knowledge of such systems stems from the study of a restricted number of macrolide-synthesising enzymes. The sequencing of the genes for the biosynthesis of monensin A, a typical(More)
A truncated version of the spinosyn polyketide synthase comprising the loading module and the first four extension modules fused to the erythromycin thioesterase domain was expressed in Saccharopolyspora erythraea. A novel pentaketide lactone product was isolated, identifying cryptic steps of spinosyn biosynthesis and indicating the potential of this(More)
Glucose depletion derepresses the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH2 gene; this metabolic change is accompanied by chromatin structural modifications in the promoter region. We show that the ADR6/SWI1 gene is not necessary for derepression of the wild type chromosomal ADH2, whereas the transcription factor Adr1p, which regulates several S. cerevisiae functions,(More)
The production of epothilone mixtures is a direct consequence of the substrate tolerance of the module 3 acyltransferase (AT) domain of the epothilone polyketide synthase (PKS) which utilises both malonyl- and methylmalonyl-CoA extender units. Particular amino acid motifs in the active site of AT domains influence substrate selection for methylmalonyl-CoA(More)