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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
A minimum of four soluble starch synthase families have been documented in all starch-storing green plants. These activities are involved in amylopectin synthesis and are extremely well conserved throughout the plant kingdom. Mutants or transgenic plants defective for SSII and SSIII isoforms have been previously shown to have a large and specific impact on(More)
Plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria synthesize storage polysaccharides by a similar ADPglucose-based pathway. Plant starch metabolism can be distinguished from that of bacterial glycogen by the presence of multiple forms of enzyme activities for each step of the pathway. This multiplicity does not coincide with any functional redundancy, as each form has(More)
The green lineage is reportedly 1,500 million years old, evolving shortly after the endosymbiosis event that gave rise to early photosynthetic eukaryotes. In this study, we unveil the complete genome sequence of an ancient member of this lineage, the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri (Prasinophyceae). This cosmopolitan marine primary producer is the(More)
Mutant lines defective for each of the four starch debranching enzyme (DBE) genes (AtISA1, AtISA2, AtISA3, and AtPU1) detected in the nuclear genome of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) were produced and analyzed. Our results indicate that both AtISA1 and AtISA2 are required for the production of a functional isoamylase-type of DBE named Iso1, the major(More)
All plants and green algae synthesize starch through the action of the same five classes of elongation enzymes: the starch synthases. Arabidopsis mutants defective for the synthesis of the soluble starch synthase IV (SSIV) type of elongation enzyme have now been characterized. The mutant plants displayed a severe growth defect but nonetheless accumulated(More)
The STA8 locus of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was identified in a genetic screen as a factor that controls starch biosynthesis. Mutations of STA8 cause a significant reduction in the amount of granular starch produced during nutrient limitation and accumulate phytoglycogen. The granules remaining in sta8 mutants are misshapen, and the abundance of amylose and(More)
Cryptophyte and chlorarachniophyte algae are transitional forms in the widespread secondary endosymbiotic acquisition of photosynthesis by engulfment of eukaryotic algae. Unlike most secondary plastid-bearing algae, miniaturized versions of the endosymbiont nuclei (nucleomorphs) persist in cryptophytes and chlorarachniophytes. To determine why, and to(More)
Red seaweeds are key components of coastal ecosystems and are economically important as food and as a source of gelling agents, but their genes and genomes have received little attention. Here we report the sequencing of the 105-Mbp genome of the florideophyte Chondrus crispus (Irish moss) and the annotation of the 9,606 genes. The genome features an(More)