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MOTIVATION When identifying differentially expressed (DE) genes from high-throughput gene expression measurements, we would like to take both statistical significance (such as P-value) and biological relevance (such as fold change) into consideration. In gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), a score that can combine fold change and P-value together is needed(More)
This study tests the hypothesis that a dose of 6 g of orally administered essential amino acids (EAAs) stimulates net muscle protein balance in healthy volunteers when consumed 1 and 2 h after resistance exercise. Subjects received a primed constant infusion of L-[(2)H(5)]phenylalanine and L-[1-(13)C]leucine. Samples from femoral artery and vein and(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if the acute anabolic muscle response to resistance exercise and essential amino acids (EAA) reflects the response over 24 h. Seven subjects participated in the following two 24-h studies: 1) resting (REST) and 2) rest plus resistance exercise and consumption of EAA (ES). Net balance (NB) across the leg was(More)
BACKGROUND To treat the coagulopathy of trauma, some have suggested early and aggressive use of cryoprecipitate as a source of fibrinogen. Our objective was to determine whether increased ratios of fibrinogen to red blood cells (RBCs) decreased mortality in combat casualties requiring massive transfusion. METHODS We performed a retrospective chart review(More)
In various animal and human studies, early administration of 17β-estradiol, a strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic agent, significantly decreases the severity of injury in the brain associated with cell death. Estrone, the predominant estrogen in postmenopausal women, has been shown to be a promising neuroprotective agent. The overall(More)
Short term administration of testosterone stimulates net protein synthesis in healthy men. We investigated whether oxandrolone [Oxandrin (OX)], a synthetic analog of testosterone, would improve net muscle protein synthesis and transport of amino acids across the leg. Six healthy men [22+/-1 (+/-SE) yr] were studied in the postabsorptive state before and(More)
Debilitating injury is accompanied by hypercortisolemia, muscle wasting, and disruption of the normal anabolic response to food. We sought to determine whether acute hypercortisolemia alters muscle protein metabolism following ingestion of a potent anabolic stimulus: essential amino acids (EAA). A 27-h infusion (80 microg. kg(-1). h(-1)) of hydrocortisone(More)
Insulin has a well-recognized anabolic effect on muscle protein, yet critically ill, severely injured patients are often considered "resistant" to the action of insulin. The purpose of this study was to assess the in vivo effects of hyperinsulinemia on human skeletal muscle in severely injured patients. To accomplish this goal, 14 patients with burns(More)
Considerable advancements in shock resuscitation and wound management have extended the survival of burned patients, increasing the risk of serious infection. We performed a 6-year review of bacteria identification and antibiotic susceptibility records at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research Burn Center between January 2003 and December 2008. The(More)
OBJECT In previous studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI), neural biomarkers of injury correlate with injury severity and predict neurological outcome. The object of this paper was to characterize neurofilament-H (NFL-H) as a predictor of injury severity in patients who have suffered mild TBI (mTBI). Thus, the authors hypothesized that phosphorylated NFL-H(More)