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We describe methods with enhanced power and specificity to identify genes targeted by somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs) that drive cancer growth. By separating SCNA profiles into underlying arm-level and focal alterations, we improve the estimation of background rates for each category. We additionally describe a probabilistic method for defining the(More)
Determining how somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) promote cancer is an important goal. We characterized SCNA patterns in 4,934 cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer data set. Whole-genome doubling, observed in 37% of cancers, was associated with higher rates of every other type of SCNA, TP53 mutations, CCNE1 amplifications and alterations of(More)
Breast carcinoma is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in women worldwide, with an estimated 1.38 million new cases and 458,000 deaths in 2008 alone. This malignancy represents a heterogeneous group of tumours with characteristic molecular features, prognosis and responses to available therapy. Recurrent somatic alterations in breast cancer have(More)
Medulloblastoma, the most common malignant paediatric brain tumour, is currently treated with nonspecific cytotoxic therapies including surgery, whole-brain radiation, and aggressive chemotherapy. As medulloblastoma exhibits marked intertumoural heterogeneity, with at least four distinct molecular variants, previous attempts to identify targets for therapy(More)
Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths, but analysis of its molecular and clinical characteristics has been complicated by histological and aetiological heterogeneity. Here we describe a comprehensive molecular evaluation of 295 primary gastric adenocarcinomas as part of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project. We propose a molecular(More)
The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has risen 600% over the last 30 years. With a 5-year survival rate of ~15%, the identification of new therapeutic targets for EAC is greatly important. We analyze the mutation spectra from whole-exome sequencing of 149 EAC tumor-normal pairs, 15 of which have also been subjected to whole-genome sequencing. We(More)
Chromosome 8q24 is the most commonly amplified region across multiple cancer types, and the typical length of the amplification suggests that it may target additional genes to MYC. To explore the roles of the genes most frequently included in 8q24 amplifications, we analyzed the relation between copy number alterations and gene expression in three sets of(More)
BACKGROUND Multidimensional genotyping of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples has the potential to improve diagnostics and clinical trials for brain tumors, but prospective use in the clinical setting is not yet routine. We report our experience with implementing a multiplexed copy number and mutation-testing program in a diagnostic laboratory(More)
Angiocentric gliomas are pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs) without known recurrent genetic drivers. We performed genomic analysis of new and published data from 249 PLGGs, including 19 angiocentric gliomas. We identified MYB-QKI fusions as a specific and single candidate driver event in angiocentric gliomas. In vitro and in vivo functional studies show(More)
BACKGROUND Pediatric low-grade gliomas (PLGGs), the most frequent pediatric brain tumor, comprise a heterogeneous group of diseases. Recent genomic analyses suggest that these tumors are mostly driven by mitogene-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway alterations. However, little is known about the molecular characteristics inherent to their clinical and(More)