Steven E Robbins

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Ankle sprains are common sports injuries. Inadequate foot position awareness is thought to be the fundamental cause of these injuries. Ankle taping may decrease risk of injury through improving foot position awareness. The benefit of taping is thought to decrease with duration of exercise because of poor tape adherence to human skin. This study was a(More)
A number of reports indicate an extremely low running-related injury frequency in barefoot populations in contrast to reports about shod populations. It is hypothesized that the adaptations which produce shock absorption, an inherent consequence of barefoot activity and a mechanism responsible for the low injury frequency in unshod populations, are related(More)
We examined the hypothesis that awareness of foot position in terms of the slope of the weight-bearing surface declines with age. We further postulated that the decline would be due to a change in plantar tactile sensibility, and that footwear would further impair position judgments. We compared 15 men aged over 65 years (mean age 73) with 36 men aged under(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that shoes with thick, soft midsoles, such as modern running shoes, provide better stability in older individuals than those with thin-hard midsoles. In addition, we examined the relation between footwear comfort and stability and stability when barefoot. DESIGN Randomized-order, cross-over, controlled comparison. (More)
Modern athletic footwear provides remarkable plantar comfort when walking, running, or jumping. However, when injurious plantar loads elicit negligible perceived plantar discomfort, a perceptual illusion is created whereby perceived impact is lower than actual impact, which results in inadequate impact-moderating behavior and consequent injury. The(More)
OBJECTIVE Athletic shoes and mats are support surface interfaces composed of relatively soft compressible materials designed to protect against injuries occurring in sports through force of vertical impact. Impact remains high with their use because humans land harder with them. We hypothesize that this hard-landing strategy is an attempt by the user to(More)
The purpose of these experiments was to test the Robbins and Hanna hypothesis, which relates differences in discomfort from localized deformation at certain positions on the plantar surface to protective behavior (intrinsic foot shock absorption). A penetrometer was used to quantify the relations between localized load and pain and between load and depth of(More)
A sense of foot position in humans is precise when barefoot, but is distorted by athletic footwear, which accounts for the high frequency of ankle sprains in shod athletes. It is unclear whether taping and rigid and semi-rigid devices protect against ankle sprains, as all of the studies suggesting this are flawed by inadequate controls. If these devices do(More)
OBJECTIVES To test the hypotheses that foot position awareness is related positively to stability, positively to shoe sole hardness, and negatively to shoe sole thickness, and that foot position awareness declines with advancing years. SETTING Older subjects were consecutive volunteers from a medical clinic; younger subjects were volunteers from the(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that ground reaction force increases when a standard stepping task is performed in late middle age. DESIGN Consecutive sample. SETTING Internal medicine practice. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-six male patients (age range, 17-72yr) from an internal medicine practice. INTERVENTION Subjects performed 20 consecutive footfall(More)