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Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the(More)
Ketamine and two of its metabolites were determined up to 24 hours by a sensitive and specific gas chromatographic mass fragmentographic (GCMF) assay in the plasma of seven premedicated surgical patients. Each patient received ketamine in a dose between 2.0 and 2.2 mg/kg given intravenously over a 30-second period. Plasma levels of ketamine varied from(More)
A pharmacokinetic analysis comparing a 2 and 3 compartment model was performed on the published data of Wall et al. (12) on the kinetics of phencyclidine (PCP). These investigators gave 100 micrograms (mean 1.3 micrograms/kg) of 3H-PCP i.v. to three human volunteers and followed the plasma disappearance of PCP over 72 hr. They suggested that PCP followed a(More)
Plasma ketamine concentrations after diazepam and placebo pretreatment were examined in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Eight healthy male subjects received either diazepam or a 0.9% NaCl placebo before ketamine and received the alternate combination 5 to 24 days later. Ten minutes before ketamine dosing, diazepam, 0.3 mg/kg, or placebo in(More)
BACKGROUND Cilia are specialized organelles that play a fundamental role in several mammalian processes including left-right axis determination, sperm motility, and photoreceptor maintenance. Mutations in cilia-localized proteins have been linked to human diseases including cystic kidney disease and retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa can be caused(More)
We report for the first time that phospholipase D activity in sea urchin spermatozoa can be regulated by a component of egg jelly known to induce an acrosome reaction. The fucose-sulfate glycoconjugate (FSG) of egg jelly that induces an acrosome reaction in spermatozoa caused Ca2+-dependent increases in 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid.(More)
Fut2-LacZ-null mice, which are a model of the human ABO and Lewis nonsecretor group, display increased susceptibility to experimental yeast vaginitis, indicating a role for alpha(1,2)fucosylated cervical glycans in mucosal defense. However, the lack of significant effect of competitive inhibition by exogenous neoglycoproteins in this study emphasizes the(More)
We investigate how host mucus glycan composition interacts with dietary carbohydrate content to influence the composition and expressed functions of a human gut community. The humanized gnotobiotic mice mimic humans with a nonsecretor phenotype due to knockout of their α1-2 fucosyltransferase (Fut2) gene. The fecal microbiota of Fut2(-) mice that lack(More)
Glycolipids in epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract act as receptors for enteric bacteria and are implicated in the activation of the intestinal immune system. To clarify the genes involved in the fucosylation of the major glycolipids, substrate glycolipids and fucosylated products were measured in tissues of wild-type and mutant mice lacking(More)