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Fucosylation of intestinal epithelial cells, catalyzed by fucosyltransferase 2 (Fut2), is a major glycosylation mechanism of host-microbiota symbiosis. Commensal bacteria induce epithelial fucosylation, and epithelial fucose is used as a dietary carbohydrate by many of these bacteria. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that regulate the(More)
A pharmacokinetic analysis comparing a 2 and 3 compartment model was performed on the published data of Wall et al. (12) on the kinetics of phencyclidine (PCP). These investigators gave 100 micrograms (mean 1.3 micrograms/kg) of 3H-PCP i.v. to three human volunteers and followed the plasma disappearance of PCP over 72 hr. They suggested that PCP followed a(More)
BACKGROUND Cilia are specialized organelles that play a fundamental role in several mammalian processes including left-right axis determination, sperm motility, and photoreceptor maintenance. Mutations in cilia-localized proteins have been linked to human diseases including cystic kidney disease and retinitis pigmentosa. Retinitis pigmentosa can be caused(More)
Ketamine and two of its metabolites were determined up to 24 hours by a sensitive and specific gas chromatographic mass fragmentographic (GCMF) assay in the plasma of seven premedicated surgical patients. Each patient received ketamine in a dose between 2.0 and 2.2 mg/kg given intravenously over a 30-second period. Plasma levels of ketamine varied from(More)
We investigate how host mucus glycan composition interacts with dietary carbohydrate content to influence the composition and expressed functions of a human gut community. The humanized gnotobiotic mice mimic humans with a nonsecretor phenotype due to knockout of their α1-2 fucosyltransferase (Fut2) gene. The fecal microbiota of Fut2(-) mice that lack(More)
Plasma ketamine concentrations after diazepam and placebo pretreatment were examined in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Eight healthy male subjects received either diazepam or a 0.9% NaCl placebo before ketamine and received the alternate combination 5 to 24 days later. Ten minutes before ketamine dosing, diazepam, 0.3 mg/kg, or placebo in(More)
Glycolipids in epithelial tissues of the gastrointestinal tract act as receptors for enteric bacteria and are implicated in the activation of the intestinal immune system. To clarify the genes involved in the fucosylation of the major glycolipids, substrate glycolipids and fucosylated products were measured in tissues of wild-type and mutant mice lacking(More)
Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic chemicals used as flame retardants in textiles, plastics, and consumer products. Although PBDE accumulation in humans has been noted since the 1970s, few studies have investigated PBDEs within the gestational compartment, and none to date has identified levels in amniotic fluid. The present study(More)
Primary sensory neurons in the vertebrate olfactory systems are characterised by the differential expression of distinct cell surface carbohydrates. We show here that the histo-blood group H carbohydrate is expressed by primary sensory neurons in both the main and accessory olfactory systems while the blood group A carbohydrate is expressed by a subset of(More)