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Levels of most nonsense mRNAs are normally reduced in prokaryotes and eukaryotes when compared with that of corresponding functional mRNAs. Genes encoding polypeptides that selectively reduce levels of nonsense mRNA have so far only been identified in simple eukaryotes. We have now cloned a human cDNA whose deduced amino acid sequence shows the highest(More)
Pattern recognition receptors (PRR) play an important roll in immediate responses to different conserved molecules produced by microbes. In this paper we describe the cloning of the mouse homolog of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3, and present an analysis of the expression of this gene in innate and adaptive immune cell lines. We also performed a broad(More)
Improving DNA vaccination remains a fundamental goal in vaccine research. Theoretically, this could be achieved by molecules encoded by DNA capable of activating TLRs to mimic inflammatory responses generated by infection. Therefore, we constructed an expression vector that allows mammalian cells to express the TLR5 agonist flagellin (FliC) at the cell(More)
Bone marrow B cell precursors frequently rearrange the Ig heavy chain variable (VH) gene segment VH81X. It is puzzling, therefore, that mature B cells in adult mice rarely express mu-heavy chains bearing this VH gene segment. We show in this work in transformed pre-B cell lines that two VH81X/mu-chains that differ in their VH-D-JH joining sequences are not(More)
Plasmid DNA vaccination using skin electroporation (EP) is a promising method able to elicit robust humoral and CD8(+) T-cell immune responses while limiting invasiveness of delivery. However, there is still only limited data available on the induction of CD4(+) T-cell immunity using this method. Here, we compare the ability of homologous prime/boost DNA(More)
Deficiencies in C factors C2, C3, or C4 as well as lack of C receptors 1 and 2 (CR1/2) lead to impaired Ab production. Classical pathway activation plays a major role, as mice deficient in factor B, a key factor in the alternative pathway, have normal Ab production. Abs in complex with their specific Ag are known to feedback regulate the Ab response, and(More)
Our knowledge of the binding sites for neutralizing Abs (NAb) that recognize a broad range of HIV-1 strains (bNAb) has substantially increased in recent years. However, gaps remain in our understanding of how to focus B cell responses to vulnerable conserved sites within the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env). In this article, we report an immunization(More)
Two full-length cDNA clones encoding rabbit glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were isolated from a lambda gt10 rabbit spleen cDNA library and sequenced. As predicted from the open reading frame (ORF) in vitro translation of a sense orientation GAPDH cDNA clone yielded a protein product with a molecular mass of 37 kDa. Rabbit GAPDH exhibits a(More)
Cellular responses to gamma-irradiation exposure are controlled by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PIKK) in the nucleus, and in addition, cytosolic PIKKs may have a role in such responses. Here, we show that the expression of tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII), a high molecular weight cytosolic peptidase, required PIKK signaling and that TPPII(More)
Adoptive immunotherapy with genetically modified natural killer (NK) cells is a promising approach for cancer treatment. Yet, optimization of highly efficient and clinically applicable gene transfer protocols for NK cells still presents a challenge. In this study, we aimed at identifying conditions under which optimum lentiviral gene transfer to NK cells(More)