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At the shoot apex of plants is a small region known as the shoot apical meristem (SAM) that maintains a population of undifferentiated (stem) cells whilst providing cells for developing lateral organs and the stem. All aerial structures of the plant develop from the SAM post-embryogenesis, enabling plants to grow in a characteristic modular fashion with(More)
The KNOTTED1-like homeobox (KNOX) genes are best known for maintaining a pluripotent stem-cell population in the shoot apical meristem that underlies indeterminate vegetative growth, allowing plants to adapt their development to suit the prevailing environmental conditions. More recently, the function of the KNOX gene family has been expanded to include(More)
Spurs are tubular outgrowths of perianth organs that have evolved iteratively among angiosperms. They typically contain nectar and often strongly influence pollinator specificity, potentially mediating reproductive isolation. The identification of Antirrhinum majus mutants with ectopic petal spurs suggested that petal-spur development is dependent on the(More)
A large proportion of genomic information, particularly repetitive elements, is usually ignored when researchers are using next-generation sequencing. Here we demonstrate the usefulness of this repetitive fraction in phylogenetic analyses, utilizing comparative graph-based clustering of next-generation sequence reads, which results in abundance estimates of(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Speciation in angiosperms can be accompanied by changes in floral colour that may influence pollinator preference and reproductive isolation. This study investigates whether changes in floral colour can accompany polyploid and homoploid hybridization, important processes in angiosperm evolution. METHODS Spectral reflectance of corolla(More)
Mitochondrial genomes are readily sequenced with recent technology and thus evolutionary lineages can be densely sampled. This permits better phylogenetic estimates and assessment of potential biases resulting from heterogeneity in nucleotide composition and rate of change. We gathered 245 mitochondrial sequences for the Coleoptera representing all 4(More)
Nicotiana sect. Repandae is a group of four allotetraploid species originating from a single allopolyploidisation event approximately 5 million years ago. Previous phylogenetic analyses support the hypothesis of N. nudicaulis as sister to the other three species. This is concordant with changes in genome size, separating those with genome downsizing (N.(More)
Genome size varies c. 2400-fold in angiosperms (flowering plants), although the range of genome size is skewed towards small genomes, with a mean genome size of 1C=5.7Gb. One of the most crucial factors governing genome size in angiosperms is the relative amount and activity of repetitive elements. Recently, there have been new insights into how these(More)