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Maturity-onset diabetes of the young is frequently misdiagnosed as type 1 or type 2 diabetes. A correct diagnosis of MODY is important for determining treatment, but can only be confirmed by molecular genetic testing. We aimed to compare the regional distribution of confirmed MODY cases in the UK and to estimate the minimum prevalence. UK referrals for(More)
Ethanol inhibits the proliferation of neural precursors by altering mitogenic and anti-mitogenic growth factor signaling and can affect global methylation activity in the fetus. We tested the hypothesis that epigenetic modification of specific cell cycle genes underlies the ethanol-induced inhibition of growth factor-regulated cell cycle progression.(More)
During an informal study in 1973 it was noted that approximately one third of patients with congenital heart disease lived in a small area in the Tucson Valley. In 1981 groundwater for a nearly identical area was found to be contaminated with trichloroethylene and to a lesser extent with dichloroethylene and chromium. Contamination probably began during the(More)
There is currently a lack of reliable, minimally invasive biomarkers that could predict the extent of alcoholism-induced CNS damage. Developing such biomarkers may prove useful in reducing the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) can be informative molecular indicators of changes in neuronal gene expression. In this(More)
BACKGROUND Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form catalyzes(More)
Stem cell vitality is critical for the growth of the developing brain. Growth factors can define the survival of neural stem cells (NSCs) and ethanol can affect growth factor-mediated activities. The present study tested two hypotheses: (a) ethanol causes the apoptotic death of NSCs and (b) this effect is influenced by the ambient growth factor. Monolayer(More)
Mitochondrial dysfunction has a significant role in the development of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Mitochondrial oxidant stress has been accepted as the singular cause of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage as an underlying cause of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, separate from a direct effect on mtDNA integrity, diabetic-induced increases in oxidant stress(More)
Outer membranes isolated from yeast mitochondria were capable mediating the in vitro insertion of porin. As with the outer membrane of intact mitochondria, the insertion was ATP-dependent, and the inserted porin was resistant to trypsin treatment after detergent solubilization. However, the extent of porin insertion into isolated outer membranes was much(More)
BACKGROUND Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that lacks adequate screening tools, often delaying diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. Despite a substantial genetic component, no single gene variant accounts for >1 % of ASD incidence. Epigenetic mechanisms that include microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to the ASD(More)
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of(More)