Steven D. Spandorfer

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Heat shock proteins (HSP) were first identified in cells after exposure to elevated temperature. Subsequently HSP have been identified as a critical component of a very complex and highly conserved cellular defence mechanism to preserve cell survival under adverse environmental conditions. HSP are preferentially expressed in response to an array of insults,(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze IVF outcomes in patients with a history of one or more elevations in basal FSH who have a normal basal FSH at the start of their IVF cycle, compared with the general IVF population. DESIGN Retrospective clinical study. SETTING University hospital. PATIENT(S) General IVF patient population. INTERVENTION(S) Patients received(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate any influence of maternal and/or paternal age on gamete characteristics and pregnancy outcomes in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. In all, 821 consecutive ICSI cases were analysed retrospectively. While a significant linear decline in semen volume was detected, no significant differences in the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the influence of body mass index (BMI) on in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome by studying a large cohort of good-prognosis IVF patients. STUDY DESIGN This was a retrospective study at a university-based IVF center evaluating 920 good-prognosis patients (< 40 years, all with normal ovarian reserve) undergoing luteal leuprolide(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and abnormal bacterial vaginal flora in an infertile population and correlate with cervical cytokine production and in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcome. STUDY DESIGN In a blinded study, 331 asymptomatic IVF patients were evaluated for BV, abnormal vaginal flora and cervical cytokine(More)
BACKGROUND Studies have suggested that ultrasound-guided embryo transfer (UG-ET) may improve the outcome in IVF; however, several factors may account for the improvement in pregnancy rate. This study examines the use of ultrasound to determine the accuracy of trial transfer (TT) in preparation for ET. METHODS Sixty-seven consecutive patients prospectively(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the age-independent association of ovarian response and IVF outcome in women with normal and abnormal ovarian reserve. DESIGN Retrospective analysis. SETTING Academic IVF center. PATIENT(S) Four thousand eight hundred sixty-two consecutive IVF cycles. INTERVENTION(S) None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Outcome of IVF was analyzed as(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the IVF outcome in women over the age of 44 years. DESIGN Retrospective analysis. SETTING University-based IVF center. PATIENT(S) Two hundred eighty-eight consecutive IVF cycles in women over the age of 44 years. INTERVENTION(S) IVF. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) Ovarian response and cycle outcome. RESULTS The mean age of the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the fetal loss rate after documented fetal cardiac activity (7-week sonogram) and to evaluate the chromosomal makeup of these losses in IVF pregnancies. DESIGN Retrospective analysis. SETTING University-based IVF center. PATIENT(S) Two thousand fourteen consecutive IVF pregnancies with documented fetal cardiac activity. MAIN(More)
When cells are subjected to various stress factors, they increase the production of a group of proteins called heat shock proteins (hsp). Heat shock proteins are highly conserved proteins present in organisms ranging from bacteria to man. Heat shock proteins enable cells to survive adverse environmental conditions by preventing protein denaturation. Thus(More)