Steven D Shapiro

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Homozygous mice with a null mutation in the MMP-9/gelatinase B gene exhibit an abnormal pattern of skeletal growth plate vascularization and ossification. Although hypertrophic chondrocytes develop normally, apoptosis, vascularization, and ossification are delayed, resulting in progressive lengthening of the growth plate to about eight times normal. After 3(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a leading cause of death and disability, but has only recently been extensively explored from a cellular and molecular perspective. There is a chronic inflammation that leads to fixed narrowing of small airways and alveolar wall destruction (emphysema). This is characterised by increased numbers of alveolar(More)
A fundamental problem in Knowledge Representation is the design of a logical language to express theories about actions and change. One of the most prominent proposals for such a language is John McCarthy's situation calculus, a formalism which views situations as branching towards the future. The situation calculus has been criticized for imposing severe(More)
To determine which proteinases are responsible for the lung destruction characteristic of pulmonary emphysema, macrophage elastase-deficient (MME-/-) mice were subjected to cigarette smoke. In contrast to wild-type mice, MME-/- mice did not have increased numbers of macrophages in their lungs and did not develop emphysema in response to long-term exposure(More)
Cilia have been classified as sensory or motile types on the basis of functional and structural characteristics; however, factors important for regulation of assembly of different cilia types are not well understood. Hepatocyte nuclear factor-3/forkhead homologue 4 (HFH-4) is a winged helix/forkhead transcription factor expressed in ciliated cells of the(More)
Abdominal aortic aneurysms represent a life-threatening condition characterized by chronic inflammation, destructive remodeling of the extracellular matrix, and increased local expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Both 92-kD gelatinase (MMP-9) and macrophage elastase (MMP-12) have been implicated in this disease, but it is not known if either is(More)
As cancer cells traverse collagen-rich extracellular matrix (ECM) barriers and intravasate, they adopt a fibroblast-like phenotype and engage undefined proteolytic cascades that mediate invasive activity. Herein, we find that fibroblasts and cancer cells express an indistinguishable pericellular collagenolytic activity that allows them to traverse the ECM.(More)
The cells and proteases that mediate cigarette smoke-induced emphysema are controversial, with evidence favoring either neutrophils and neutrophil-derived serine proteases or macrophages and macrophage-derived metalloproteases as the important effectors. We recently reported that both macrophage metalloelastase (MMP-12) and neutrophils are required for(More)
Despite much information on their catalytic properties and gene regulation, we actually know very little of what matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) do in tissues. The catalytic activity of these enzymes has been implicated to function in normal lung biology by participating in branching morphogenesis, homeostasis, and repair, among other events.(More)
Results of recent studies reveal vascular and neuroprotective effects of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) inhibition and MMP-9 gene deletion in experimental stroke. However, the cellular source of MMP-9 produced in the ischemic brain and the mechanistic basis of MMP-9-mediated brain injury require elucidation. In the present study, we used MMP-9-/- mice(More)