Steven D Pennock

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In spite of intensified efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways and no evidence to demonstrate that endosomal signaling is able to produce a biological outcome. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the lack of means to(More)
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) thwarts the repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Currently, there is no effective prevention for PVR. Platelet-derived growth factor receptor α (PDGFRα) is associated with PVR in humans and strongly promotes experimental PVR driven by multiple vitreal growth factors outside the PDGF family. We sought to(More)
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a blinding disorder that occurs in eyes with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment and in eyes that have recently undergone retinal detachment surgery. There are presently no treatment strategies to reduce the risk of developing PVR in eyes with retinal detachment, and surgical intervention is the only option for eyes(More)
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) exemplifies a disease that is difficult to predict, lacks effective treatment options, and substantially reduces the quality of life of an individual. Surgery to correct a rhegmatogenous retinal detachment fails primarily because of PVR. Likely mediators of PVR are growth factors in vitreous, which stimulate cells(More)
Strong evidence indicates that endosome-localized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an important role in cell signaling. However, elimination of endosomal signaling does not attenuate EGF-induced physiological outcomes, arguing against physiological relevance. Recently we established a system to specifically activate endosome-associated EGFR in(More)
Although accumulated evidence supports the concept of endosomal signaling of receptor tyrosine kinases, most results are generated from studies of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is not clear whether the concept of endosomal signaling could be generally applied to the other receptor tyrosine kinases. For example, platelet-derived growth factor(More)
The precise role of Cbl in epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis and trafficking remains to be fully uncovered. Here, we showed that mutant EGFR1044, which was truncated after residue 1044, did not associate with c-Cbl and was not ubiquitinated initially in response to EGF but was internalized with kinetics similar to those of wild-type(More)
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a nonneovascular blinding disease and the leading cause for failure in surgical repair of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Once formed, PVR is difficult to treat. Hence, there is an acute interest in developing approaches to prevent PVR. Of the many growth factors and cytokines that accumulate in vitreous as PVR(More)
Certain platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) isoforms are associated with proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), a sight-threatening complication that develops in a subset of patients recovering from retinal reattachment surgery. Although these PDGF isoforms are abundant in the vitreous of patients and experimental animals with PVR, they make only a minor(More)
Despite intensive efforts to understand cell signaling from endosomes, there is no direct evidence demonstrating that endosomal signaling is sufficient to activate signal transduction pathways or that endosomal signaling can produce biological responses. The lack of breakthrough is due in part to the inability to generate endosomal signals in isolation from(More)