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Ethanol inhibits the proliferation of neural precursors by altering mitogenic and anti-mitogenic growth factor signaling and can affect global methylation activity in the fetus. We tested the hypothesis that epigenetic modification of specific cell cycle genes underlies the ethanol-induced inhibition of growth factor-regulated cell cycle progression.(More)
There is currently a lack of reliable, minimally invasive biomarkers that could predict the extent of alcoholism-induced CNS damage. Developing such biomarkers may prove useful in reducing the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). Extracellular microRNAs (miRNAs) can be informative molecular indicators of changes in neuronal gene expression. In this(More)
BACKGROUND Different mechanisms of diabetic-induced NO dysfunction have been proposed and central to most of them are significant changes in eNOS function as the rate-limiting step in NO bioavailability. eNOS exists in both monomeric and dimeric conformations, with the dimeric form catalyzing the synthesis of nitric oxide, while the monomeric form catalyzes(More)
Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) strains have been shown to adhere to human intestinal tissue in an in vitro organ culture (IVOC) model, and certain strains manifest mucosal toxicity. We have recently described the EAEC plasmid-encoded toxin (Pet), a member of a specific serine protease subclass of the autotransporter proteins. When injected into(More)
BACKGROUND Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder that lacks adequate screening tools, often delaying diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. Despite a substantial genetic component, no single gene variant accounts for >1 % of ASD incidence. Epigenetic mechanisms that include microRNAs (miRNAs) may contribute to the ASD(More)
Stem cell vitality is critical for the growth of the developing brain. Growth factors can define the survival of neural stem cells (NSCs) and ethanol can affect growth factor-mediated activities. The present study tested two hypotheses: (a) ethanol causes the apoptotic death of NSCs and (b) this effect is influenced by the ambient growth factor. Monolayer(More)
Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) lead to alterations in central nervous system (CNS) architecture along with impaired learning and memory. Previous work from our group and that of others suggests that one mechanism underlying these changes is alteration of cell proliferation, apoptosis, and DNA-repair in neural stem cells (NSCs) produced as a consequence of(More)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by a wide spectrum of deficits in social interaction, communication, and behavior. There is a significant genetic component to ASD, yet no single gene variant accounts for >1% of incidence. Posttranscriptional mechanisms such as microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression without(More)